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3D-Earth The goal of this project is establish a global 3D reference model model of the crust and upper mantle based on the analysis of satellite gravity and (electro-)magnetic missions in combination with seismological models and analyse the feedback [...]UNIVERSITY OF KIEL (DE)Sciencescience, solid earthThe goal of this project is establish a global 3D reference model model of the crust and upper mantle based on the analysis of satellite gravity and (electro-)magnetic missions in combination with seismological models and analyse the feedback between processes in Earth’s deep mantle and the lithosphere. Selected case examples will provide the possibility to test these approaches on a global and regional scale. This will result in a framework for consistent models that will be used to link the crust and upper mantle to the dynamic mantle. The prime objective is to integrate, for the first time, seismological models and satellite observation towards a consistent image of the crust and upper mantle in 3D. Satellite gravity and (electro-) magnetic data help to transfer velocity images towards composition and temperature that reflect the tectonic state and evolution of the Earth and offer a novel understanding of the processes that shape our planet. The limitations and sensitivity of the different geophysical methods in context of their imaging capability are analysed and combined with forward and inverse modelling to be able to evaluate the possibilities of these approaches to reveal the Earth’s structure. For the inverse modelling, we will explore the sensitivity of joint inversion to the individual data sets and compare these to inversions relying on only a single or a few data sets. To analyse the structure of the deep mantle, we will try to combine knowledge about mantle conductivity and mineral physics with the geophysical observations. We will assess the role of Earth’s internal layering and mantle convection on the evolution of the Earth’s surface (dynamic topography). The data and methods we propose to use in this study will significantly supersede previous attempts and will be a first step towards an understanding of the Earth in space and time, a necessary step towards the development of a 4D Earth model.We will analyse the limitations and sensitivities of the different geophysical methods in the context of their imaging capability and plan to combine forward and inverse modelling to be able to evaluate the possibilities of these approaches to reveal the Earth’s structure. For the inverse modelling, we will explore the sensitivity of joint inversion to the individual data sets and compare these to inversions relying on only a single or a few data sets. Selected case examples will provide the possibility to test these approaches on a global and regional scale. This will result in a framework for consistent models that will be used to link the crust and upper mantle to the dynamic mantle. To analyse the structure of the deep mantle, we will attempt to combine knowledge about mantle conductivity and mineral physics with the geophysical observations. We will assess the role of Earth’s internal layering and mantle convection on the evolution of the Earth’s surface (dynamic topography). The data and methods we propose to use in this study will significantly supersede previous attempts and will be a first step towards an understanding of the Earth in space and time, a necessary step towards the development of a 4D Earth model.
4DANTARCTICA Ice sheets are a key component of the Earth system, impacting on global sea level, ocean circulation and bio-geochemical processes. Significant quantities of liquid water are being produced and transported at the ice sheet surface, base, and [...]UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH (GB)Sciencecryosphere, polar science cluster, scienceIce sheets are a key component of the Earth system, impacting on global sea level, ocean circulation and bio-geochemical processes. Significant quantities of liquid water are being produced and transported at the ice sheet surface, base, and beneath its floating sections, and this water is in turn interacting with the ice sheet itself. Surface meltwater drives ice sheet mass imbalance; for example enhanced melt accounts for 60% of ice loss from Greenland, and while in Antarctica the impacts of meltwater are proportionally much lower, its volume is largely unknown and projected to rise. The presence of surface melt water is also a trigger for ice shelf calving and collapse, for example at the Antarctic Peninsula where rising air and ocean temperatures have preceded numerous major collapse events in recent decades. Meltwater is generated at the ice sheet base primarily by geothermal heating and friction associated with ice flow, and this feeds a vast network of lakes and rivers creating a unique bio-chemical environment. The presence of melt water between the ice sheet and bedrock also impacts on the flow of ice into the sea leading to regions of fast-flowing ice. Meltwater draining out of the subglacial system at the grounding line generates buoyant plumes that bring warm ocean bottom water into contact with the underside of floating ice shelves, causing them to melt.  Meltwater plumes also lead to high nutrient concentrations within the oceans, contributing to vast areas of enhance primary productivity along the Antarctic coast. Despite the key role that hydrology plays on the ice sheet environment, there is still no global hydrological budget for Antarctica. There is currently a lack of global data on supra- and sub-glacial hydrology, and no systems are in place for continuous monitoring of it or its impact on ice dynamics. The overall aim of 4DAntarctica is to advance our understanding of the Antarctic Ice Sheet’s supra and sub-glacial hydrology, its evolution, and its role within the broader ice sheet and ocean systems. We designed our programme of work to address the following specific objectives: Creating and consolidating an unprecedented dataset composed of ice-sheet wide hydrology and lithospheric products, Earth Observation datasets, and state of the art ice-sheet and hydrology models Improving our understanding of the physical interaction between electromagnetic radiation, the ice sheet, and liquid water Developing techniques and algorithms to detect surface and basal melting from satellite observations in conjunction with numerical modelling Applying these new techniques at local sites and across the continental ice sheet to monitor water dynamics and derive new hydrology datasets Performing a scientific assessment of Antarctic Ice Sheet hydrology and of its role in the current changes the continent is experiencing Proposing a future roadmap for enhanced observation of Antarctica’s hydrological cycle To do so, the project will use a large range of Earth Observation missions (e.g. Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, SMOS, CryoSat-2, GOCE, TanDEM-X, AMSR2, Landsat, Icesat-2) coupled with ice-sheet and hydrological models. By the end of this project, the programme of work presented here will lead to a dramatically improved quantification of meltwater in Antarctica, an improved understanding of fluxes across the continent and to the ocean, and an improved understanding of the impact of the hydrological cycle on ice sheet’s mass balance, its basal environment, and its vulnerability to climate change.
4DGreenland In 4DGreenland the overall aim is to advance the current state of knowledge on the hydrology of the Greenland Ice Sheet, by capitalising on the latest advances in Earth Observation data.

The high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere have [...]
Technical University of Denmark (DK)ScienceGlaciers and Ice Sheets, polar science cluster, scienceIn 4DGreenland the overall aim is to advance the current state of knowledge on the hydrology of the Greenland Ice Sheet, by capitalising on the latest advances in Earth Observation data. The high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere have experienced the largest warming over the last decades. The Greenland ice sheet is currently undergoing rapid changes in response to the increased temperatures. Understanding the Greenland ice sheet hydrologyis essential to understand these changes – and how the Greenland ice sheet will contribute to global sea level rise in a future warming climate. In 4DGreenland we will map and quantify both meltwater- , subglacial- and supra-glacial processes, as well as performing an integrated assessment of Greenland’s hydrology based on the results. We will focus our integrated assessment analysis on the time span 2010-present, and generate a Product Portfolio of novel datasets over the whole Greenland ice sheet to characterise the different components of the hydrological system. Thorough validation ofall derived products and scientific results will be carried out. Another outcome of the project will be a scientific roadmap providing recommendations to ESA to further advance the use of EO technology to address the main knowledge gaps and scientific challenges associated with the Greenland hydrology.
A Swarm, SuperDARN, and ICEBEAR Collaboration – Turbulent E-region Aurora Measurements (SSIC-TEAM) Living Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Devin Huyghebaert.

The Swarm SuperDARN ICEBEAR Collaboration – Turbulent E-region Aurora Measurements (SSIC-TEAM) project will focus on the Farley-Buneman Instability (FBI) and its [...]
UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN (CA)Scienceionosphere and magnetosphere, living planet fellows, scienceLiving Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Devin Huyghebaert. The Swarm SuperDARN ICEBEAR Collaboration – Turbulent E-region Aurora Measurements (SSIC-TEAM) project will focus on the Farley-Buneman Instability (FBI) and its effects on plasma density irregularity and turbulence generation in the E-region ionosphere.  A better understanding of the FBI is required due to its potential for turbulent heating of the ionospheric E-region plasma during active ionospheric events driven by magnetospheric and solar effects. Heating of the ionosphere affects plasma circulation patterns and neutral atmospheric dynamics.  Understanding the sources of ionospheric heating is essential to better model and predict space weather impacts on the terrestrial atmosphere. The FBI is a plasma density instability that has a positive growth rate when electrons in a plasma have a velocity that is greater than the ion velocity by at least the ion-acoustic speed. This instability is able to occur in the E-region of the ionosphere, primarily at altitudes of 90-120 km. The instability generates plasma density irregularities at a multitude of characteristic wavelengths, where the growth rate and phase speed of the irregularities are related to the electron motion direction.  Plasma density irregularities are a signature of plasma turbulence occurring in the ionosphere and can be measured using ground based ionospheric radars. Through the use of measurements from the Swarm satellite constellation and coherent scatter radars the physical phenomena associated with the FBI will be investigated.  The magnetometer and Electric Field Instrument (EFI) will be used from the Swarm Alpha, Bravo, and Charlie satellites to provide essential context for the coherent scatter radar measurements.  The Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) from the recently added Swarm Echo satellite will also be utilized to provide optical details of the region when available.  For coherent scatter radars both the Ionospheric Continuous-wave E-region Bistatic Experimental Auroral Radar (ICEBEAR) and Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars will be used in the studies.  These radars are based out of the University of Saskatchewan in Canada and have a field of view located in the terrestrial auroral zone.  Due to the recent advances in radio hardware and techniques it is now possible to obtain measurements from these different instruments on similar spatial and temporal resolution scales.
AALM4INFRAM: ARCTIC ACTIVE LAYER MONITORING FOR INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT This project will use various InSAR based approaches to characterize changes in land subsidence rates due to permafrost melting in  Greenland and assess the impact such changes are having on critical infrastructure in the region.GAMMA REMOTE SENSING AG (CH)Digital Platform Servicesclimate, land, permanently open call, SAR, snow and iceThis project will use various InSAR based approaches to characterize changes in land subsidence rates due to permafrost melting in  Greenland and assess the impact such changes are having on critical infrastructure in the region.
Advanced Sentinel-1 analysis ready data for Africa Historically for land application, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery has often been seen only as as complement to optical remote sensing in cloud covered areas.

There are several reasons for this:

1) the threshold of [...]
NORTHERN RESEARCH INSTITUTE (NORUT) (NO)Sustainable Developmentpermanently open call, SARHistorically for land application, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery has often been seen only as as complement to optical remote sensing in cloud covered areas. There are several reasons for this: 1) the threshold of interpretation and understanding of SAR imagery is often perceived as very high to an untrained user, 2) the human capacity and technical capability in pre-processing SAR data has been out of reach without adequate, often expensive software, and technically-trained staff and 3) the availability of data has been too sparse and expensive for being used operationally for applications other than in (sub)-polar regions. This has especially been the case in developing countries. The Copernicus program, specifically the Sentinel-1A/B (S1) satellites, and recent international efforts opened for a new era of operational SAR application, data access and processing and overcome the challenges 2 and 3 above. Satellite open data cubes (ODC) are currently developed in several countries, including in Africa, with the aim to provide analysis ready data (ARD) from both optical and SAR sensors. The combination of both optical and SAR generally improves the application results. However, for SAR data these ARD efforts generally aim to provide only pre-processed, i.e. radiometric, terrain and slope corrected and georeferenced, single SAR scenes or, at the best, yearly mosaics with questionable consistency and reduce little the subjective reluctance of using SAR data operationally. The purely vast amount of single scenes therefore needs further processing in order to reduce the amount of data as well as to make the data more attractive and easier to interpret for untrained users. This project is intended to overcome user reluctance to integrate SAR data into their EO monitoring and assessment activities by making advanced SAR products available as Analysis Ready Data and demonstrate the possibilities of processing and integrating these data with conventional EO data in a cloud environment. The primary focus will be users in developing countries so the demonstration activities will explicitly take into account issues such as bandwidth constraints.
AI and EO as Innovative Methods for Monitoring West Nile Virus Spread (AIDEO) AI and EO as Innovative Methods for Monitoring West Nile Virus Spread (AIDEO) is being developed by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. Caporale”, a veterinary public health institution that has an established [...]Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale (IT)Digital Platform Servicesartificial intelligence, enterprise, health, permanently open callAI and EO as Innovative Methods for Monitoring West Nile Virus Spread (AIDEO) is being developed by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. Caporale”, a veterinary public health institution that has an established international track record in the surveillance, diagnosis, epidemiology, modelling, molecular epidemiology of Vector Borne Diseases (VBDs), AImageLab, that is a research laboratory of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari” at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia with extensive experience in Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, Progressive Systems, that delivers solutions to simplify Earth Observation data exploitation and brings significant expertise and experience to the consortium based on years of collaboration with ESA and on-site presence at ESRIN, and REMEDIA Italia, that has relevant experience in designing and realising printed, web, multimedia and technology enhanced scientific communication projects, systems and tools developed inside the Earth Observation Department of ESA (ESRIN). Aim of the project is to develop an innovative, scalable and accurate process to produce West Nile Disease (WND) risk maps, using EO data and specific AI algorithms. Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are an important threat with an increasing impact on public health due to wider geographic range of occurrence and higher incidences. West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most spread zoonotic VBD in Italy and Europe. Identifying suitable environmental conditions across large areas containing multiple species of potential hosts and vectors can be difficult. The recent and massive availability of Earth Observation (EO) data and the continuous development of innovative Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods can be of great help to automatically identify patterns in big datasets and to make highly accurate predictions. Our project aims to develop an innovative, scalable and accurate process to produce West Nile Disease (WND) risk maps, using EO data and specific AI algorithms. Using historical ground truth data of WND cases and EO data derived from different sources (e.g. Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3, PROBA-V, etc.), a learning architecture, based on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Graph Theory, will be applied on ground truth WND cases and satellite images and tested. This process will produce AI based risk maps that will be then compared with classical statistical methods to evaluate the degree of improvement in forecasting the disease occurrence and spread. Knowledge acquired with this project can be potentially used to define intervention priorities within national diseases surveillance plans. Moreover, the definition and development of algorithms working on available and frequent satellite images could be applied in early warning systems not developed so far, and could be integrated into the Information Systems of the Italian Ministry of Health and made available to other interested stakeholders. This work will therefore lay the basis for a future early warning system that could alert public authorities when climatic and environmental conditions become favourable to the onset and spread of the disease. This will be achieved in three key phases: Phase 1: Definition of requirements Information regarding EO data to be used, criteria to select ground truth data, temporal interval to be analysed and different Deep Neural Network models will be evaluated and defined. Selection criteria and preparation of remotely sensed products will then be investigated, considering data from multiple sources, various sensors, spectral bands, spatial resolutions and revisit times. WND and EO data will be selected to guarantee a correct spatial and temporal representation of the last ten-years epidemics. Phase 2: Data retrieval and processing WND cases will be extracted from the official repository of the Italian Ministry of Health (National Information System of Animal Disease Notification – SIMAN), integrated with laboratory data coming from the national veterinary laboratories, validated and selected, in space and time, according to the requirements defined in phase 1. WND ground truth outbreaks will be split in different datasets that will be used to train and test the DNN model, then fine-tune the model and hence make predictions and evaluate the overall accuracy. Selected EO data will be collected from different sources and stored in a centralised system where they will be organised and pre-processed according to the requirements defined in phase 1. Classical statistical models for WND spread (suitability analysis, logistic regression, etc.) will be developed to be compared with AI model performance. Phase 3: Train, fine-tuning and validation of the AI model AI models/algorithms for the analysis and prediction of WND “behaviour” will be developed and parameters estimated. Graph-based DNN models will be explored for merging geo-referenced local sites information with satellite images, the latter being processed through Convolutional Neural Networks (pre-trained or trained from scratch). Temporal deep models (e.g. RNN – Recurrent Neural Networks, LSTM – Long-short term memory) will then be employed for an effective forecasting of the behaviour based on EO data. The accuracy of the chosen model will then be evaluated together with the need to include additional data or to change the train model hyper-parameters. We will hence produce the final model that will be compared with the classical statistical models developed in phase 2. Dissemination of information and project results will last for the entire duration of the project and will be made available to stakeholders, relevant institutions, organisations and individuals through workshop and congress presentations, publications in peer reviewed journals, websites.
AIREO – AI ready EO training datasets Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms have great potential to advance processing & analysis of Earth Observation (EO) data. Training datasets (TDS) are crucial for ML and AI applications but they are becoming a [...]NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND (NIU GALWAY) (IE)Enterpriseapplications, artificial intelligence, enterpriseArtificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms have great potential to advance processing & analysis of Earth Observation (EO) data. Training datasets (TDS) are crucial for ML and AI applications but they are becoming a major bottleneck in more widespread and systematic application of AI/ML in EO. The issues include: General lack and inaccessibility of high-quality TDS Absence of standards resulting in inconsistent and heterogeneous TDS (data structures, file formats, quality control, meta data, repositories, licenses, etc.) Limited discoverability and interoperability of TDS Lack of best-practices & guidelines for generating, structuring, describing and curating TDS Another obstacle to the use of AI/ML in EO applications for non-EO experts is a lack of domain specific knowledge such as map projections, file formats, calibration and quality assurance. As such, AI-Ready EO Training Datasets (AIREO) should be self-explanatory, follow FAIR principles and be directly ingestible for AI/ML applications. AIREO approach: Review current initiatives, activities, techniques,tools, practices and requirements for preparing, using and sharing AI-Ready EO Training Datasets Setup AIREO network of stakeholders and practitioners in the AI/ML, EO, data science in communities and from other relevant science disciplines. Capture community requirements and develop: Specifications for AIREO datasets by leveraging existing formats and standards; Best-practices guidelines for preparing, using and sharing AIREO TDS; Pilot and benchmark AIREO datasets for selected use-case applications ; A Python library, compatible with OGC web; interface standards and RESTful APIs, for ingesting AIREO TDS into workflows; Jupyter notebooks showing the use of AIREO pilot datasets & Python library. AIREO specifications, best practices and datasets will: Meet FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) data principles; Involve and build on top of relevant community initiatives
AKROSS: Altimetric Ku-Band Radar Observations Simulated with SMRT Accurate estimates of sea ice thickness are essential for numerical weather prediction, ice extent forecasts for navigability and to demonstrate the impacts of climate change on sea ice. The main source of uncertainty in sea ice thickness [...]CORES SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING LIMIT (GB)Sciencealtimeter, CryoSat, permanently open call, polar science cluster, science, snow and iceAccurate estimates of sea ice thickness are essential for numerical weather prediction, ice extent forecasts for navigability and to demonstrate the impacts of climate change on sea ice. The main source of uncertainty in sea ice thickness measurements from radar altimetry is due to snow. Scattering of the radar signal as it travels through snow changes the return received by the altimeter. AKROSS will determine how snow properties affect the radar return and therefore the accuracy of sea ice thickness estimates. AKROSS has three main objectives: Collection of a suite of field observations of the properties of snow on sea ice suitable for evaluation of electromagnetic models across a range of different satellites, with a focus on radar altimetry. Evaluation and consolidation of the Snow Microwave Radiative Transfer Model in altimeter mode. Investigate origin of signal returns through analysis of the dependence of the altimeter waveform to snowpack structure. The field campaign will take place in Eureka, Canada, timed to coincide with CryoSat2 and ICESat2 satellite overpasses. Snow measurements will include specific surface area, density, layer boundary roughness and casted samples for x-ray tomography imaging. AKROSS will complement and co-ordinate with other activities including studies for the Copernicus Polar Ice and Snow Topography Altimeter (CRISTAL) candidate mission.
ALBIOM (ALtimetry for BIOMass) The ALBIOM project (ALtimetry for BIOMass) proposes to derive forest biomass using SAR Altimetry Data from the Copernicus Sentinel-3 (S3) Mission.

Biomass is at present monitored globally using optical satellites, SAR and LiDAR technology, [...]
DEIMOS SPACE UK LTD (GB)Sciencealtimeter, biosphere, carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, forestry, land, Sentinel-3The ALBIOM project (ALtimetry for BIOMass) proposes to derive forest biomass using SAR Altimetry Data from the Copernicus Sentinel-3 (S3) Mission. Biomass is at present monitored globally using optical satellites, SAR and LiDAR technology, but it is still poorly quantified in most parts of the world, and the satellite data currently exploited for this purpose are not enough to achieve the goal of global biomass mapping and monitoring with sufficient accuracy. In this context, data from existing satellites but unexploited so far, capable of providing additional independent biomass information, have the potential for a very important role in global observation of biomass, advancing our understanding of the carbon cycle and management of forests, biodiversity and ecosystems. The ALBIOM project combines: A modelling component, through the development of a Sentinel-3 altimeter backscattering simulator over vegetated areas, based on the existing state of the art modelling of the backscattering of Ku and C-band signals from vegetation, to establish the physical relationships between the backscattered signal from S3 altimeter and the different levels of biomass; An algorithm component, through the development of a suitable inversion algorithm for biomass estimation from S3 altimeter data, investigating both a simple method based on error minimization (i.e. derivation of analytical or empirical model function) and a more empirical Artificial Neural-Network (ANN) approach trained on the model outputs, or on a combination of model outputs and data; A prototype biomass product is generated as final project output over specific sites of boreal and tropical forests and shared with a number of users to assess its validity. ALBIOM is an innovative project, since both the use of Sentinel-3 SAR altimeter data to retrieve biomass and the generation of a Sentinel-3 SAR altimeter backscatter simulator over vegetated areas have not been accomplished before. The outcome of such project will have an important scientific impact, as it can provide a new global biomass dataset derived from S3 altimetry, which could be integrated into existing high-resolution biomass products derived from data fusion methods. The project would also open up new perspectives on the use of all the historical data from the past altimetry missions for biomass mapping. Users potentially interested in the results of ALBIOM include environmental agencies, space agencies, private companies, and all the entities interested in bioenergy, deforestation and forest degradation, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable management of biomass resources. This 12 month activity is led by Deimos Space UK with the participation of University of La Sapienza (IT) and Tor Vergata University (IT).
Arctic + Salinity Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is a key indicator of the freshwater fluxes and an important variable to understand the changes the Arctic is facing. However, salinity in-situ measurements are very sparse in the Arctic region. For this reason, remote [...]ARGANS LIMITED (GB)Scienceocean science cluster, oceans, polar science cluster, scienceSea Surface Salinity (SSS) is a key indicator of the freshwater fluxes and an important variable to understand the changes the Arctic is facing. However, salinity in-situ measurements are very sparse in the Arctic region. For this reason, remote sensing salinity measurements (currently provided by L-band radiometry satellites, SMOS and SMAP) are of special relevance for this region. The retrieval of SSS in the Arctic represents a challenge, because brightness temperatures measured by L-band satellites are less sensitive to salinity in cold waters. An additional drawback consists in the presence of sea ice, that contaminates the brightness temperature and must be adequately processed. The ESA Arctic+ Salinity project (Dec 2018 – June 2020) will contribute to reduce the knowledge gap in the characterization of the freshwater flux changes in the Arctic region. The objectives of this project are the following: 1. Develop a new algorithm and novel approaches with the aim of producing the best quality validated SMOS SSS product in the Arctic region with its corresponding accuracy. Additionally, SMOS and SMAP data will be combined with the aim to improve the radiometric accuracy and the characterization of the product biases and stability. 2. Generate a long-term salinity dataset from 2011 up to date to be publicly offered to the scientific community. The products will be daily distributed with a temporal resolution of 9 days and a spatial resolution of 25Km (EASE Grid 2.0). 3. Assess the relation between the dynamics of SMOS salinity with respect to land freshwater fluxes (Greenland and glacier flows) and ocean freshwater fluxes (rivers and E-P balance) using model outputs. This has the objective to quantify the freshwater fluxes through SSS products. 4. Assess the impact of the new SSS satellite data in a data assimilation system (the TOPAZ4 system, both in forecast and reanalysis mode) with the idea that, if an improvement is demonstrated, the assimilation of SMOS & SMAP products in TOPAZ will be part of the new Arctic reanalysis and forecast products on the CMEMS portal. 5. Define a roadmap describing the future work to better characterize the freshwater fluxes for the Arctic regions. The output of this project will be of great benefit for the on-going ESA Sea Surface Salinity Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project, which started in February 2018. The outputs of the project will be: 1. The distribution to the scientific community of the best-up-to-date sea surface salinity maps from SMOS and from the combination of SMOS and SMAP with their corresponding uncertainties. 2. Explore the feasibility and utility of assimilating the surface salinity maps product in the TOPAZ4 model. The potential problem the project face is the sparse in-situ data availability in the area which is needed for a complete validation assessment. Other potential problems are the sea ice edge that has a direct effect in the brightness temperature and the RFI contamination. But several solutions have already been identified.
Arctic Crowdsourcing This project will develop enhanced Earth Observations (EO) services for Arctic applications planned for C-CORE’s Coresight Platform to include community/crowd sourced very high resolution drone data and other forms of field data that support [...]C-CORE CENTRE FOR COLD OCEAN RESOURCES ENGINEERING (CA)Digital Platform Servicespermanently open call, platformsThis project will develop enhanced Earth Observations (EO) services for Arctic applications planned for C-CORE’s Coresight Platform to include community/crowd sourced very high resolution drone data and other forms of field data that support Arctic stakeholder needs
ARCTIC+ SEA ICE MASS The Arctic is a complex region encompassing different physical and biogeochemical processes and interactions among several components of the Earth system (e.g., sea ice, ocean, glaciers, ice caps, the Greenland Ice Sheet, snow, lakes and river [...]isardSAT Polska (PL)Sciencescience, snow and iceThe Arctic is a complex region encompassing different physical and biogeochemical processes and interactions among several components of the Earth system (e.g., sea ice, ocean, glaciers, ice caps, the Greenland Ice Sheet, snow, lakes and river ice, permafrost, vegetation, complex interactions with the atmosphere, people, etc.). Changes in the Arctic have a strong impact on the Earth’s climatesystem , the global energy budget, the ocean circulation, the water cycle, gas exchanges, sea level, and biodiversity. Considering that all of Earth’s inter-connected components respond to changes in temperature, the Arctic is a sensitive indicator of climate variability and change.Despite considerable research progress in understanding the Arctic region over the last decade, many gaps remainin observational capabilities and scientific knowledge. These gaps limit present ability to understand and interpret on-going processes, prediction capabilities and forecasting in the Arctic region, thereby hampering evidence-based decision making. Addressing these gaps represents a key priority in order to establish a solid scientific basis for the development of future information servicesfor the Arctic.In this context, the 20th January 2015, ESA and the Cryosphere project of the World Climate Research programme (CliC-WCRP) organised a scientific consultation meeting in Tromso with the main objective of gathering recommendations from the scientificcommunity on the most pressing priorities for Arctic research, where EO may contribute in the coming decade. The workshop resulted ina report listing a number of different priority areas that will contribute to establish an strong focus on Arctic research in thenext components of ESA EO programmes for the period 2017-2021.In order to put words in actions, this ITT aims at addressing someofthepriorities identified in Tromso as an starting point for future activities. In particular, with this ITT, a number of priority areas will be addressed at feasibility and demonstration level with the ultimate target of establishing a solid scientific basis to initiate larger research actions from 2017.To this end, with this ITT ESA plans to place 4 parallel contracts adressing different priority areas as identified by the scientific community.In this context, Arctic+ aims at advancing towards the achievement ofsome of the most pressing priorities in Arctic science, where EO may contribute. In particular, the main overarching project objectiveis threefold: 1) Supporting the development of novel products and enhanced data sets responding to the needs of the Arctic science community;2) Fostering new scientific results addressing the main priority areas of Arctic research;3) Preparing a solid scientific basis for larger activities addressing the priorities of the Arctic science community; This shall involve the collaborationamong the different scientific communities involved in Arctic process studies, modellers and EO experts;In the medium and long-term the objectives of the project include:• To foster the scientific exploitation of EO-based geo-information products (maximising the use of ESA data) to respond directly to the needs of the Arctic scientific community in the context of selected thematic areas;• To support existing international efforts to improve the observation, understanding and prediction of ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere processes at different spatial and time scales demonstrating the capability of EO and ESA data to respond to the needs of the Arctic research community;• To foster the integration of EO data, in-situ observations and models in support of Arctic science;• To develop aScientific Roadmap as a basis for further ESA activities in support of the Arctic research.
ARCTIC+ SNOW ON SEA ICE The Arctic is a complex region encompassing different physical and biogeochemical processes and interactions among several components of the Earth system (e.g., sea ice, ocean, glaciers, ice caps, the Greenland Ice Sheet, snow, lakes and river [...]isardSAT Polska (PL)Sciencescience, snow and iceThe Arctic is a complex region encompassing different physical and biogeochemical processes and interactions among several components of the Earth system (e.g., sea ice, ocean, glaciers, ice caps, the Greenland Ice Sheet, snow, lakes and river ice, permafrost, vegetation, complex interactions with the atmosphere, people, etc.). Changes in the Arctic have a strong impact on the Earth’s climatesystem , the global energy budget, the ocean circulation, the water cycle, gas exchanges, sea level, and biodiversity. Considering that all of Earth’s inter-connected components respond to changes in temperature, the Arctic is a sensitive indicator of climate variability and change.Despite considerable research progress in understanding the Arctic region over the last decade, many gaps remainin observational capabilities and scientific knowledge. These gaps limit present ability to understand and interpret on-going processes, prediction capabilities and forecasting in the Arctic region, thereby hampering evidence-based decision making. Addressing these gaps represents a key priority in order to establish a solid scientific basis for the development of future information servicesfor the Arctic.In this context, the 20th January 2015, ESA and the Cryosphere project of the World Climate Research programme (CliC-WCRP) organised a scientific consultation meeting in Tromso with the main objective of gathering recommendations from the scientificcommunity on the most pressing priorities for Arctic research, where EO may contribute in the coming decade. The workshop resulted ina report listing a number of different priority areas that will contribute to establish an strong focus on Arctic research in thenext components of ESA EO programmes for the period 2017-2021.In order to put words in actions, this ITT aims at addressing someofthepriorities identified in Tromso as an starting point for future activities. In particular, with this ITT, a number of priority areas will be addressed at feasibility and demonstration level with the ultimate target of establishing a solid scientific basis to initiate larger research actions from 2017.To this end, with this ITT ESA plans to place 4 parallel contracts adressing different priority areas as identified by the scientific community.In this context, Arctic+ aims at advancing towards the achievement ofsome of the most pressing priorities in Arctic science, where EO may contribute. In particular, the main overarching project objectiveis threefold: 1) Supporting the development of novel products and enhanced data sets responding to the needs of the Arctic science community;2) Fostering new scientific results addressing the main priority areas of Arctic research;3) Preparing a solid scientific basis for larger activities addressing the priorities of the Arctic science community; This shall involve the collaborationamong the different scientific communities involved in Arctic process studies, modellers and EO experts;In the medium and long-term the objectives of the project include:• To foster the scientific exploitation of EO-based geo-information products (maximising the use of ESA data) to respond directly to the needs of the Arctic scientific community in the context of selected thematic areas;• To support existing international efforts to improve the observation, understanding and prediction of ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere processes at different spatial and time scales demonstrating the capability of EO and ESA data to respond to the needs of the Arctic research community;• To foster the integration of EO data, in-situ observations and models in support of Arctic science;• To develop aScientific Roadmap as a basis for further ESA activities in support of the Arctic research.
ARCTIC+ THEME 3 – FRESH WATER FLUXES (ArcFlux) The Arctic is a complex region encompassing different physical and biogeochemical processes and interactions among several components of the Earth system (e.g., sea ice, ocean, glaciers, ice caps, the Greenland Ice Sheet, snow, lakes and river [...]Technical University of Denmark (DK)Sciencescience, water cycle and hydrology, water resourcesThe Arctic is a complex region encompassing different physical and biogeochemical processes and interactions among several components of the Earth system (e.g., sea ice, ocean, glaciers, ice caps, the Greenland Ice Sheet, snow, lakes and river ice, permafrost, vegetation, complex interactions with the atmosphere, people, etc.). Changes in the Arctic have a strong impact on the Earth’s climatesystem , the global energy budget, the ocean circulation, the water cycle, gas exchanges, sea level, and biodiversity. Considering that all of Earth’s inter-connected components respond to changes in temperature, the Arctic is a sensitive indicator of climate variability and change.Despite considerable research progress in understanding the Arctic region over the last decade, many gaps remainin observational capabilities and scientific knowledge. These gaps limit present ability to understand and interpret on-going processes, prediction capabilities and forecasting in the Arctic region, thereby hampering evidence-based decision making. Addressing these gaps represents a key priority in order to establish a solid scientific basis for the development of future information servicesfor the Arctic.In this context, the 20th January 2015, ESA and the Cryosphere project of the World Climate Research programme (CliC-WCRP) organised a scientific consultation meeting in Tromso with the main objective of gathering recommendations from the scientificcommunity on the most pressing priorities for Arctic research, where EO may contribute in the coming decade. The workshop resulted ina report listing a number of different priority areas that will contribute to establish an strong focus on Arctic research in thenext components of ESA EO programmes for the period 2017-2021.In order to put words in actions, this ITT aims at addressing someofthepriorities identified in Tromso as an starting point for future activities. In particular, with this ITT, a number of priority areas will be addressed at feasibility and demonstration level with the ultimate target of establishing a solid scientific basis to initiate larger research actions from 2017.To this end, with this ITT ESA plans to place 4 parallel contracts adressing different priority areas as identified by the scientific community.In this context, Arctic+ aims at advancing towards the achievement ofsome of the most pressing priorities in Arctic science, where EO may contribute. In particular, the main overarching project objectiveis threefold: 1) Supporting the development of novel products and enhanced data sets responding to the needs of the Arctic science community;2) Fostering new scientific results addressing the main priority areas of Arctic research;3) Preparing a solid scientific basis for larger activities addressing the priorities of the Arctic science community; This shall involve the collaborationamong the different scientific communities involved in Arctic process studies, modellers and EO experts;In the medium and long-term the objectives of the project include:• To foster the scientific exploitation of EO-based geo-information products (maximising the use of ESA data) to respond directly to the needs of the Arctic scientific community in the context of selected thematic areas;• To support existing international efforts to improve the observation, understanding and prediction of ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere processes at different spatial and time scales demonstrating the capability of EO and ESA data to respond to the needs of the Arctic research community;• To foster the integration of EO data, in-situ observations and models in support of Arctic science;• To develop aScientific Roadmap as a basis for further ESA activities in support of the Arctic research.
ArcticSummIT: Arctic Summer Ice Thickness Living Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Jack Landy.

Arctic-SummIT will deliver, for the first time, a sea ice thickness product during summer months from the ESA Cryosat-2 satellite. As the extent of Arctic sea ice has [...]
UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL (GB)Sciencecryosphere, living planet fellows, polar science cluster, scienceLiving Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Jack Landy. Arctic-SummIT will deliver, for the first time, a sea ice thickness product during summer months from the ESA Cryosat-2 satellite. As the extent of Arctic sea ice has declined at unprecedented speed over the past few decades, we have been able to view only limited snapshots of the ice cover’s thickness. Pan-Arctic observations of sea ice thickness have been obtained in recent years by satellite altimeters such as ICESat and Cryosat-2, but conventionally these data are only available during winter months. Our current understanding of basin-scale sea ice melting patterns during summer are limited to poorly-constrained ice-ocean model simulations, at a time when the ice cover is most dynamic, not to mention biological productivity and ice-ocean geochemical fluxes are most active. Moreover, advanced knowledge of ice conditions – thickness in particular – are critical for managing sustainable commercial enterprises, such as shipping and oil & gas extraction, in the northern polar seas. This project will develop a novel algorithm for obtaining sea ice thickness from satellite altimetry, even as the ice is melting. The conventional technique for separating sea ice from water (i.e. leads within the ice pack) relies on classifying altimeter waveforms through the shape of echoes, but breaks down when meltwater ponds forming at the ice surface appear the same as leads. However, pilot research alongside partners from the Canadian Ice Service (CIS) has demonstrated that other characteristics of the Cryosat-2 echoes, particularly the calibrated backscatter coefficient of the radar, can separate ice from ocean regardless of the surface melting state. Arctic-SummIT will develop this exciting discovery into a rigorous method for measuring sea ice thickness during summer months. By the end of the project, a unique, pan-Arctic sea ice thickness product will be produced for July-September over the full Cryosat-2 data record: 2011-2018+, filling the summer ‘gap’ we have presently. Exchange of sea ice between the central Arctic Ocean and, for instance, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) or Fram Strait will then be determined from the product of ice volume from Cryosat-2, and high-resolution ice drift speed obtained from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery including the ESA Sentinel-1 constellation and the Canadian Space Agency’s (CSA) RADARSAT-2. Seasonal ice volume fluxes will be made available to the academic community, alongside the new summer sea ice thickness product, through an online portal hosted via ESA at the University of Bristol.
ARKTALAS HOAVVA PROJECT The multi-disciplinary, long-term, satellite-based Earth Observations (EO) form a tremendous synergy of data and information products that should to be more systematically and consistently explored, from the short synoptic time scales to the [...]NANSEN ENVIRONMENTAL AND REMOTE SENSING CENTER (NO)Sciencecryosphere, ocean science cluster, oceans, polar science cluster, scienceThe multi-disciplinary, long-term, satellite-based Earth Observations (EO) form a tremendous synergy of data and information products that should to be more systematically and consistently explored, from the short synoptic time scales to the longer decadal time scales. This lays the rationale for the ESA funded Arktalas Hoavva study project. A stepwise multi-modal analyses framework approach benefitting from native resolution satellite observations together with complementary in-situ data, model fields, analyses and visualization system and data assimilation tools will be applied.  Following this approach, the overall goal is to remove knowledge gaps and advance the insight and quantitative understanding of sea ice, ocean and atmosphere interactive processes and their mutual feedback across a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. In turn, four major existing interlinked Arctic Scientific research Challenges (ASC) will be investigated, including: ASC-1: Characterize Arctic Amplification and its impact (ASC-1) Central elements (not exclusive) are: – reduction in sea ice extent and concentration; – changes in albedo; – changes in the radiation balance; – increased air temperature; – delayed onset of sea ice freezing; – early onset of sea ice melting; – increasing area of melt ponds and polynias; – increased lead fraction; – changes in snow cover and SWE; – changes in ocean-atmosphere momentum, heat exchange and gas exchanges; – reduction in fast ice area; – thinning of sea ice thickness; – changes in optical conditions in the upper ocean with influence on the biology and marine ecosystem; – more favourable conditions for sea ice drift; – more meltwater; – larger fetch; – enhanced wave-sea ice interaction; – more wave induced sea ice break-up; – modifications to atmospheric boundary layer and changes in weather pattern; – influence on Arctic vortex and hence teleconnection to mid-latitudes. ASC-2: Characterize the impact of more persistent and larger area open water on sea ice dynamics  Building on ASC-1,  this is associated with: – increasing momentum transfer to the upper ocean leading to more turbulent mixing and possibly entrainment of warm Atlantic Water below the halocline; – increasing Ekman effects; – changes in sea ice growth, salt rejection and halocline formation; – larger fetch and lower frequency waves penetrating further into the ice covered regions leading to more floe-break-up; – increasing lead fraction and more sea ice melting; – reduction in sea ice flow size, age,  thicknesses and extent and subsequent change in sea ice mechanical behaviour; – possibly more abundance of internal waves and mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies generated in the open ocean with subsequent abilities to propagate into the ice covered regions leading to changes in sea ice deformation and dynamics. ASC-3: Understand, characterize and predict the impact of extreme event storms in sea-ice formation Growing areas of open water within the Arctic Ocean and the neighbouring seas will be more effectively exposed to extreme events. Cold air outbreak and polar lows, for instance, are known to have strong impact in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ), including; – enhanced momentum transfer and vertical mixing; – enhanced sea ice formation; – enhanced formation of unstable stratification in the atmospheric boundary layer; – more low cloud formations changing the radiation balance; – set up abnormal wave field to strengthen wave induced sea ice break-up; – abnormal impact on the pycnocline and subsequent entrainment of heat into the upper mixed. A central question is eventually whether the Arctic amplification will trigger increasing frequency of occurrences and strength of extremes. ASC-4: Understand, characterize and predict the Arctic ocean spin-up The ongoing Arctic amplification and subsequent changes, mutual interactions and feedback mechanisms are also expected to influence the basin scale atmospheric and ocean circulation within the Arctic Ocean.  In particular, this will address: – freshwater distribution and transport; – importance of Ekman pumping; – changes in water mass properties; – changes in upper ocean stratification and mixing; – changes in sub-surface heat exchange; – possibly more abundance of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies and internal waves generated in the open ocean with subsequent abilities to propagate into the sea ice covered regions. The Arktalas Hoavva project kicked-off 9 July 2019 and will be executed over a 24 months period through the following seven interconnected tasks with mutual input-output feeds as schematically illustrated in the figure below. One of the major outcomes of the project is six dedicated research papers emerging from Task 3 that are specifically addressing the Arctic Scientific Challenges. These papers will be published in peer review journals. Moreover, the project will develop a visualization portal in polar-stereographic configuration that will be connected to the Arktalas data archive and allow users to access and make use of the Arktalas satellite-based, in-situ and model-based dataset during the project.
Asian Development Bank Resident Support Through this activity ESA is deploying an EO information expert (Technical Secondment) to the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in Manila, Philippines, during 2017–2021. This activity is implemented in conjunction with ESA's EO4SD [...]Collaborative Space (IE)Sustainable Developmentsustainable developmentThrough this activity ESA is deploying an EO information expert (Technical Secondment) to the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in Manila, Philippines, during 2017–2021. This activity is implemented in conjunction with ESA’s EO4SD initiative, and to further strengthen the collaboration with ADB (in particular, as an integral part of the ESA–ADB Memorandum of Intent). The primary objective of the secondment is to promote increased awareness use of EO information products and services within ADB operational activities. Europe has a world-leading EO capability, therefore priority is given to promoting European EO assets and skills. The longer-term objective is to achieve widespread acceptance and sustainability of EO-based products and services within international development operations.
ATLANTIC CITIES: SMART, SUSTAINABLE AND SECURE PORTS AND PROTECTING THE OCEAN The project aims at developing and delivering to the end user communities a number of customized EO-based information services to support decision making processes in the Atlantic Region:

Climate Resilience
Atlantic Cities and Ports
[...]
DEIMOS SPACE UK LTD (GB)ApplicationsAtlantic, oceans, ports, sustainable development, urbanThe project aims at developing and delivering to the end user communities a number of customized EO-based information services to support decision making processes in the Atlantic Region: Climate Resilience Atlantic Cities and Ports Protecting the Ocean The Climate Resilience Service will be focused on providing information and know-how for assessing the risks and potential socio-economic impacts of coastal processes such as erosion and flooding, to: Critical infrastructures Business activities Coastal protection elements The main service users are: environmental agencies municipalities coastal business activities The Cities and Ports Service will focus on addressing the needs identified by coastal cities with ports, supporting the social cohesion and inclusiveness while ensuring the harmonious co-existence of many economic activities and the well-being of its inhabitants and tourists. This service therefore aims to support ports, cities and related entities in: Assessing the activities in and around ports Monitoring of maritime transport Detecting port-related pollution Identifying security/safety issues for assets. The Protecting the Ocean Service will focus on: detecting emerging pollutants such as marine litter monitoring the environmental status of ocean areas, including MPAs and other marine ecosystem relevant areas. This service addresses users from national and international authorities and other entities responsible for reporting marine status and indicators.
Atlantic Meridional Transect Ocean Flux from satellite campaign (AMT4OceanSatFlux) This project estimates of the air-sea flux of CO2 calculated from a suite of satellite products over a range of Atlantic Ocean provinces. It deploys state-of-the-art eddy co-variance methods to provide independent verification of satellite [...]UKRI Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)Scienceocean science cluster, oceans, scienceThis project estimates of the air-sea flux of CO2 calculated from a suite of satellite products over a range of Atlantic Ocean provinces. It deploys state-of-the-art eddy co-variance methods to provide independent verification of satellite estimates of CO2 gas exchange over the Atlantic Ocean. The project provides Fiducial Reference Measurements from the AMT28 field campaign (from 23rd September to 29th October 2018) to enable independent verification and validation of the satellite CO2 air-sea flux estimates both at point scales and on scales that relate to satellite data over a range of oceanographic conditions. Global algorithms that are being used to study ocean acidification from using satellite data are also being evaluated and refined within the project, using high spatio-temporal resolution underway measurements made on AMT28 field campaign.
Atlantic Regional Initiative – Applications: Offshore Wind Energy Services based on Earth Observation (EO) can provide valuable information during the design stage by providing a long time series of wind data that allows a better assessment and characterization of the wind resource energy production potential [...]Deimos Engenharia (PT)ApplicationsAtlantic, energy and natural resources, oceans, renewable energyServices based on Earth Observation (EO) can provide valuable information during the design stage by providing a long time series of wind data that allows a better assessment and characterization of the wind resource energy production potential of different possible wind farm (WF) sites, helping to select the most advantageous ones. These typical site wind characteristics can also assist in the determination of the optimal location of each individual wind turbine (WT) inside the specified site boundaries, minimizing combined WT wake influence and therefore minimizing energy production losses. Once the WF is operational, the EO based services can help establish optimal site maintenance weather windows and help foresee or determine/monitor possible rain erosion effects on the WT blades. Long time series of wind and wave data will help determine possible overall weather windows for those operations, while short term weather forecast can provide valuable information to guide the planned maintenance activities (e.g. adjust time window for the activity based on weather forecast inputs). This 2 year project focuses on the development of an integrated application covering: A planning dashboard for wind farm design and operations, including weather windows for offshore operations planning. The dashboard aims to provide a single access point to the different EO services to be developed with advanced data visualisation and download capabilities so that the user is able to trigger service runs, access easily all service outputs, compare different site locations, configurations and maintenance scenarios, and get support from a team of specialised personnel for each one of the services. The EO-based services will cover different activity areas of wind farm design and operations from wind resource and wake effect assessment to the definition of maintenance operations weather windows, provided by dedicated expert teams coming from different partners. The users will interact with those EO experts to better understand the capabilities, optimal conditions of use and possible limitations of the different presented services, therefore easing their learning curve on the usage and uptake on these products. Hopefully this process, that will be upscaled to other users in the final workshop of the project, will improve significantly the uptake of these types of products by the wind energy sector. The dashboard should integrate these new EO based services with wind industry sector standard metrics for energy production, operational costs and total cost of energy to provide more recognisable and actionable information to the end users and therefore ease the uptake of these types of services by these non-EO expert user communities. Winds for resource assessment. The main focus will be on making EO data and derived products easily accessible for end users and on the development of new applications, which can integrate the EO data seamlessly into the applications already in use by the wind energy community and in particular the wind energy industry. The aim is to fully integrate satellite wind based products with well established industry standard wind farm planning and operations software solutions (SOWFA) and indicators (AEP and LCOE), addressing the full information value chain to provide meaningful and familiar information to infrastructure managers and other interested stakeholders. Assessment of wind turbine wake effects. The work will provide access to the higher resolution SAR based EO datasets, produced by DTU, to downstream industry standard applications developed by Wavec. Those applications will use those wind satellite products as ground truth to run the required simulations to assess and minimise wake effects. As in the previous service, standard energy production and cost indicators such as AEP and LCOE will be estimated in these simulations to provide actionable and familiar information to the different stakeholders. Assessment of rain erosion of wind turbine blades. The work will use rain data from the GPM mission to characterise rain events, which, combined with wind data from satellite EO, will produce novel rain-wind data series for selected sites with operating wind farms. The work will be the first of its kind, thus in a prototype level data for initial evaluation by end users, namely, wind farm owners, wind farm operators and wind farm planners. The main partner to demonstrate the services will be EDP, through the Windfloat Atlantic wind farm project installed 20 km off the Portuguese coast at Viana do Castelo. During the user engagement the consortium team will be in contact with a series of stakeholders working in the Atlantic Region to help consolidate the technical requirements. As a result, additional service exercises for different users might be prepared. This activity corresponds to Theme 2 of the original Invitation to Tender.
BALTIC+ Geodetic SAR for Baltic Height System Unification (SAR-HSU) Height systems and related sea level observations are based on a number of measurement systems, which all have their own characteristics and deliver different type of observations. Traditionally, sea level is observed at tide gauge stations, [...]TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH (DE)ScienceBaltic, GOCE, SAR, scienceHeight systems and related sea level observations are based on a number of measurement systems, which all have their own characteristics and deliver different type of observations. Traditionally, sea level is observed at tide gauge stations, which usually also serve as height reference stations for national levelling networks and therefore define a height system of a country. Thus sea level research across countries is closely linked to height system unification and needs to be regarded jointly. In order to analyse all observations they need to be available in a common reference frame. Within this project three major objectives are addressed. Connection of tide gauge markers with the GNSS network geometrically by the geodetic SAR technique in order to determine the relative vertical motion and to correct the tide gauge readings. Determine a GOCE based high resolution geoid at tide gauge stations in order to deliver absolute heights of tide gauges with respect to a global equipotential surface as reference. Joint analysis of geometrical and physical reference frames to make them compatible, and to determine corrections to be applied for combined analysis of geometric and physical heights. These objectives are addressed by the project team with complementary expertise. The Baltic Sea serves as test area with very good geodetic infrastructure in order to identify the capabilities of the geodetic SAR technique for height system unification and determination of the absolute sea level at tide gauges.
BALTIC+ Salinity Dynamics This project aims to study the potential benefit of incorporating satellite-derived Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) measurements into oceanographic and environmental applications within the Baltic Sea. For such purpose, a team led by ARGANS Ltd (UK) [...]ARGANS FRANCE (FR)ScienceBaltic, ocean science cluster, scienceThis project aims to study the potential benefit of incorporating satellite-derived Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) measurements into oceanographic and environmental applications within the Baltic Sea. For such purpose, a team led by ARGANS Ltd (UK) with participation of Barcelona Expert Centre (BEC / ICM-CSIC, Spain) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI, Finland) will develop an innovative SSS product from the measurements obtained by the Earth Explorer SMOS. It incorporates advanced techniques for noise and bias correction to deal with the specific difficulties that the retrieval of salinity has in the region: land/sea contamination, sea/ice contamination, manmade radio-frequency interferences, and limitations in the current dielectric constant. The project will generate data by modifying substantially the existing production chain from L0 data to L4 maps, aiming to obtain meaningful information for applications. The characteristics of the final products will be enhanced both spatially and temporally thanks to data fusion, in order to meet the end-user requirements. SSS accuracy will be also improved to meet the needs of the scientific community operating in this basin. In the first half of the project, the focus will be in improving the brightness temperatures and adequate the image reconstruction process specifically for the Baltic Sea. In the second half of the project, the emphasis will be in the removal of remaining biases and generation of the fused L4 products, as well as assessing the performance and impact it has in the various case studies. Specific attention will be drawn to investigate the added-value of this new product to address the scientific challenges associated to salinity, as identified by Baltic Earth community: salinity annual trends and budgets; insights of the coupling mechanisms involved in the interfaces atmosphere-ice-sea; climatological projections. In addition, it is expected to estimate how other types of studies would benefit of incorporating SSS, like regional biochemical models, or any other in which frontal areas identification could be of relevance. For instance, river run-offs, sea ice formation/melting and, marginally, North Sea water intrusions. The project benefits of the existence of a long time series of observations provided by SMOS, which allows the team to explore longer time scales. The expected higher time and spatial coverage will be key factors in the outcome of this project, in a region in which in situ observations of salinity are scarce or concentrated in the coastal areas. It is expected that the results of this activity will lead towards an increase in the presence of SSS data.
BALTIC+ Sea-Land biogeochemical linkages (SeaLaBio) The overall goal of the ESA funded project Baltic+ SeaLaBio (Sea-Land Biogeochemical linkages) running from Dec 2018 to May 2020 is to develop methods for assessing carbon dynamics and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea through integrated use of [...]FINNISH ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE (SYKE) (FI)ScienceBaltic, carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, land, ocean science cluster, oceans, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3The overall goal of the ESA funded project Baltic+ SeaLaBio (Sea-Land Biogeochemical linkages) running from Dec 2018 to May 2020 is to develop methods for assessing carbon dynamics and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea through integrated use of EO, models, and ground-based data The poor state of the Baltic Sea again became apparent during summer 2018 in form of massive and long-lasting cyanobacteria blooms. Warm and sunny weather, combined with good availability of nutrients led to the worst algae situation in a decade. Climate change is expected to cause further warming in this region making these events more and more common in the future. The decades of dumping untreated waste water into the Baltic Sea and the use of fertilizers in agriculture have resulted in strong internal loading. While the water treatment situation has improved and fertilizers are being used more responsibly, the flux of carbon and nutrients from land to sea is still great and in many areas largely unknown. The Sentinel satellites of the Copernicus programme offer an excellent opportunity for characterizing and monitoring the fluxes and processes occurring in coastal zones. This in turn will lead to improved process understanding. With this in mind, the Baltic+ SeaLaBio research project aims to find an answer to the question: • Can we quantify the carbon flux from land to sea with Sentinel-3 (S3) OLCI and Sentinel-2 (S2) MSI data in the Baltic Sea region? And if not, what are the main obstacles and potential solutions to be addressed in the future? In addition to frequent cyanobacteria blooms, the high absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) causes problems to the utilization of EO for monitoring the state of the Baltic Sea. The available processors for S3 and S2 often provide overestimated values for Chlorophyll a and underestimate CDOM. The main source of these problems is the failure of the atmospheric correction to provide reasonable marine reflectances. Thus, the project focuses especially on improving the atmospheric correction and in-water inversion algorithms for S3 and S2 images. The developed methods will be validated with in situ data collected from different parts of the Baltic Sea. We will also improve the spatial resolution of a biogeochemical (BGC) model (Ecological ReGional Ocean Model, ERGOM) and compare its output against the EO results. S3 OLCI has a better band combination for water quality estimation than S2 but its spatial resolution limits its use in river estuaries and archipelagos common in the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. Hence, the synergistic use of these two data sources can lead to improved coverage in coastal regions without compromising the thematic quality of the data. The project will actively disseminate its progress and results in various Baltic Sea and EO events.
BALTIC+ SEAL – Sea Level The current knowledge of the water circulation in the Baltic Sea comes essentially from in situ observations and models. The Baltic+ SEAL (Sea Level) Project aims at providing a consistent description of the sea level variability in the Baltic [...]TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MUNICH (DE)Sciencealtimeter, applications, Baltic, marine environment, ocean science cluster, scienceThe current knowledge of the water circulation in the Baltic Sea comes essentially from in situ observations and models. The Baltic+ SEAL (Sea Level) Project aims at providing a consistent description of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea area in terms of seasonal and inter-annual variation and put the results in relationship with the forcing associated with this variability, using a developed dedicated coastal altimetry product. The objective is to create and validate a novel multi-mission sea level product in order to improve the performances of the current state-of-the-art of the ESA efforts in this topic: the Sea Level Climate Change Initiative (SL_cci). In this sense, this project can actually be considered as a laboratory in which advanced solutions in the pre-processing and post-processing of satellite altimetry can be tested before being transferred to global initiatives, such as the future phases of SL_cci. The Baltic Sea includes the two main areas in which the use of satellite altimetry has been severely limited since the start of the “altimetry era”: the presence of sea ice and the proximity of the coast. During the winter season and the sea ice maximum in end of February, 40% of the Baltic Sea is covered by sea ice. The Team aims to apply an unsupervised classification approach to all possible altimetry satellite missions treated in this project (TOPEX-Poseidon, ERS-1/2, Envisat, Jason-1/2/3, SARAL/AltiKa, CryoSat-2, Sentinel-3A/B) to get reliable open water observations and adapt the classification approach to the sea-ice/open-water conditions and different satellite altimetry mission characteristics (e.g. pulse-limited, SAR). The Baltic Sea area is also strongly impacted by Vertical Land Motion and in particular by the glacial isostatic adjustment. As it has the advantage of being an area very well sampled by tide gauges, which measure relative sea level, the Project aims at constituting a more reliable source to compare the absolute sea level from altimetry with the absolute sea level obtained by subtracting the Vertical Land Motion from the trends at the tide gauge and could even be the data source for experiments of differentiation between TG and altimetry trends in the absence of GPS measurements.
BathySent – An Innovative Method to Retrieve Global Coastal Bathymetry from Sentinel-2 The BathySent project aims at the development of an automated method for mapping coastal bathymetry (water depths) on the basis of Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission. The interest of using Sentinel-2 data lies on the capacity to cover large areas [...]BUREAU DE RECHERCHES GEOLOGIQUES ET MINIERES (BRGM) (FR)Sciencecoastal zone, ocean science cluster, permanently open call, scienceThe BathySent project aims at the development of an automated method for mapping coastal bathymetry (water depths) on the basis of Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission. The interest of using Sentinel-2 data lies on the capacity to cover large areas (National and European scale targeted), while benefiting from the high repeat cycle (5 days) of the mission. The systematic acquisition plan of Sentinel-2 is of major interest for studying and monitoring coastal morphodynamics. The proposed methodology avoids limitation of exiting techniques in terms of dependency on water turbidity and requirement for calibration. The main objective of the project is to propose a method for deriving coastal bathymetry on wide areas (National/European scale) based on Sentinel-2 data and assess its performances. Today knowledge of near-shore bathymetry is essential for multiple applications such as for the study of submarine morphodynamics. These data are vital for planning sustainable coastal development, coastal risks assessments (including tsunamis) and conservation of submarines ecosystems. Moreover, they represent a crucial input for near-shore navigation and submarine resources exploration. The reasons why space-borne remote-sensing techniques must play an essential role in retrieving near-shore bathymetry are threefold. First, space-borne imagery makes it possible to access remote areas with wide spatial coverage at high spatial resolution. Second, because space-borne imagery is acquired on a regular basis, a historical data archive is accessible for most sensors, which enables scientists to access information from the past. Third, the cost of the data is relatively affordable compared to airborne or ground missions. In the BathySent project, we propose to extract bathymetry from a single Sentinel-2 dataset, exploiting the time lag that exists between two bands on the focal plane of the Sentinel 2 sensor. To tackle the issue of estimating bathymetry using two Sentinel 2 images acquired quasi simultaneously, we plan to develop a method based on cross-correlation and wavelet analysis that exploits the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Sentinel 2 dataset to jointly extract both ocean swell celerity (c) and wavelengths (λ). Our team has already started to develop this method based on the French Space Agency’s (CNES) SPOT 5 dataset (Système Probatoire pour l’Observation de La Terre) with promising results (Pourpardin et al., 2015). We called it the CWB method, which stands for Correlation, Wavelets and Bathymetry. Our method combines the direct measurement of c presented in (de Michele et al., 2012) with an original wavelet-based adaptive λ estimate (that we published in Poupardin et al., 2014) to retrieve a spatially dense cloud of (λ, c) couples that are then used to estimate water depth (h) via the dispersion relation presented in equation (1). The method preferably applies to the zone between the coast and an area of depth less than or equal to half the wavelength of the waves (typically up to a hundred meters deep), with the exception of the wave breaking zone.   Bibliography Poupardin, A., D. Idier M. de Michele D. Raucoules “Water depth inversion from a single SPOT-5 dataset”  IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. vol. 54 no. 4 pp. 2329-2342 Apr. 2016. de Michele M.,  Leprince S., Thiébot J., Raucoules D., Binet R., 2012, “Direct Measurement of Ocean Waves Velocity Field from a Single SPOT-5 Dataset”, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol 119, pp 266–271.  
BICEP (Biological Pump and Carbon Exchange Processes) The ocean carbon cycle is a vital part of the global carbon cycle. It has been estimated that around a quarter of anthropogenically-produced emissions of CO2, caused from the burning of fossil fuels and land use change, have been absorbed by the [...]PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY (GB)Sciencecarbon cycle, carbon science cluster, ocean science cluster, oceans, permanently open call, scienceThe ocean carbon cycle is a vital part of the global carbon cycle. It has been estimated that around a quarter of anthropogenically-produced emissions of CO2, caused from the burning of fossil fuels and land use change, have been absorbed by the ocean. On the other hand, significant advances have been made recently to expand and enhance the quality of a wide range of Remote Sensing based products capturing different aspects of the ocean carbon cycle. Building on recommendations made in a series of recent meetings and reports, on ESA lead initiatives and projects and on other relevant international programmes, the objective of the BICEP project is to bring these developments together into an holistic exercise to further advance our capacity to better characterise from a synergetic use of space data, in-situ measurements and model outputs, the different components of the ocean biological carbon pump, its pools and fluxes, its variability in space and time and the understanding of its processes and interactions with the earth system. To achieve this goal, the BICEP project will first synthesise the current state of knowledge in the field and produce a consolidated set of scientific requirements that define the products to be generated, as well as how these products will be evaluated and used to produce an enhanced BICEP dataset. Major emphasis will be placed on developing unified products to ensure that the carbon budgets made are in balance. Uncertainties in the derived products will also be quantified. A large in situ dataset of ocean carbon pools and fluxes will be created, to be used to evaluate and select the algorithms, with a focus on five key test sites, representative of the range of conditions in the global ocean. Using these selected algorithms, a 20-year time series of data will be generated, built through application of the selected algorithms to the ESA OC-CCI time series, a merged, bias-corrected ocean-colour data record explicitly designed for long-term analysis. The dataset will be used as input to a novel, satellite-based characterisation of the ocean biological carbon pump, quantifying the pools and fluxes, how they vary in time and space, and how they compare with ocean model estimates. The satellite-based Ocean Biological Cabon Pump analysis will then be placed in the context of carbon cycling in other domains of the Earth System, through engagement with Earth System modellers and climate scientists. Finally, a workshop will be organized, to be used as a vehicle to engage the international community in a discussion on how the BICEP work could be pushed forward, and integrated with results from other components of the ocean carbon cycle (e.g. CO2 air-flux and ocean acidification) not covered in the project, and how the representation of satellite-based ocean carbon work could be further improved in the context of large international Earth System analysis, such as the Global Carbon Project and assessments made within the International Panel of Climate Change (IPCC). The proposed work will be delivered by a consortium of twelve international Institutes, led by the Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML, Plymouth, UK) and composed of top-level scientists, with collective expertise on Remote Sensing, statistical modelling, ocean carbon cycling, theoretical ecology and Earth System science.
BIOMASCAT: Assessing vegetation carbon dynamics from multi-decadal spaceborne observations Characterization of forest biogeochemical cycles is of paramount importance in Earth system science to understand contemporaneous dynamics and for expanding global land models in order to predict future trends of vegetation and climate. Thanks [...]GAMMA REMOTE SENSING AG (CH)Sciencebiosphere, carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, forestry, land, permanently open call, SAR, scienceCharacterization of forest biogeochemical cycles is of paramount importance in Earth system science to understand contemporaneous dynamics and for expanding global land models in order to predict future trends of vegetation and climate. Thanks to the increasing amount of spaceborne observations of land and ocean surfaces, data-driven models are revealing intriguing trends and mechanisms and model evaluation exercises are reaching global insights into temporal dynamics, which would not be achievable otherwise. The global characterization and the accurate knowledge of terrestrial carbon pools have been acknowledged as a fundamental variable for driving research in the terrestrial component of Earth system models. Traditionally, carbon pools are best estimated from measurements of forest inventories. However, these estimates are sparse in time and sometimes only locally relevant. There is therefore a strong requirement for data collection approaches that expand these spatial-temporal representativeness limits. However to date, despite the long term records of observations from space, only one dataset of biomass extended over multiple years so far – a 10 year passive microwave data. This project is developing a more comprenensive approach to the inforamtion gap by combining SAR and scatterometer data collected since the early 1990s to estiamte biomass properties. As the spatial resolution of both sensors is consistent with the range of length scales typcially used within ecosystem models it is expected that this development will provide a unique contribution to improving ecosystem modelling and assessment.
Black Sea and Danube Regional Initiative – Applications: Environmental Risk Management in the Danube Catchment The Environmental Risk Management in the Danube Catchment (The Danube Environmental Risk Assessment Platform, DEAP) project aims to create a platform of applications based on Earth Observation (EO) to support Environmental Risk Management within [...]The Icon Group (IE)EO Exploitation Platform - ApplicationsThe Environmental Risk Management in the Danube Catchment (The Danube Environmental Risk Assessment Platform, DEAP) project aims to create a platform of applications based on Earth Observation (EO) to support Environmental Risk Management within the Danube catchment.  The purpose of the project is to provide regional stakeholders, who currently do not regularly use EO data, with access to dynamic environmental assessments using such datasets. The service will comprise a suite of cloud-based applications which will detect, monitor, analyse and characterise the sources of environmental problems using available EO data in conjunction with in-situ inputs and other reference data.  Service applications will be developed for deployment in the cloud and shall employ advanced dispersion modelling techniques in conjunction with EO Data to deliver meaningful (actionable) maps, statistics and other data across 20 countries. The project includes engagement with regional stakeholders, the definition of the service portfolio and data processing chains, and the provision of the operational service to stakeholders. The service will benefit from existing ESA/EC DIAS infrastructures to support the delivery of environmental risk assessments in a fully automated way. At an operational level, the service will identify industrial waste discharge, transport waste discharge, agricultural run-off, and ecosystem degradation in near real time, and shall represent a unique tool to regional agencies.  Stakeholders include environmental protection agencies, port authorities, fisheries management agencies, the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube, various development agencies, etc. This activity corresponds to Priority Application Domain C of the original Invitation to Tender.
Black Sea and Danube RI – Applications This activity is part of the EO (Earth Observation) Exploitation Platforms element of ESA’s Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP-5) aiming to establish regional information services for Black Sea Region in the agriculture and forestry [...]GISAT S.R.O. (CZ)Enterpriseapplications, enterprise, regional initiativesThis activity is part of the EO (Earth Observation) Exploitation Platforms element of ESA’s Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP-5) aiming to establish regional information services for Black Sea Region in the agriculture and forestry domains. It is intended to develop a suite of service cases demonstrating the monitoring services to CAP paying agencies, precision agriculture, monitoring of agriculture production and forest resource management (forest area, type and deforestation mapping) with users in Czech Republic, Georgia, Romania and Hungary.
BLUE ECONOMY: INNOVATION CLUSTERS, ATLANTIC NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND MARITIME SPATIAL PLANNING The 2-years Blue Economy project aims at developing and demonstrating EO driven data solutions, which deliver actionable information to key coastal stakeholders. Applications will focus on the areas of coastal monitoring, ocean renewable energy, [...]GMVIS SKYSOFT S.A. (PT)EnterpriseAtlantic, blue economy, coastal zone, marine environment, maritime spatial planning, oceans, regional initiatives, renewable energyThe 2-years Blue Economy project aims at developing and demonstrating EO driven data solutions, which deliver actionable information to key coastal stakeholders. Applications will focus on the areas of coastal monitoring, ocean renewable energy, and marine litter. It is being implemented through the European Space Agency’s Atlantic Regional Initiative. In parallel, a range of Atlantic-focused recommendations will be developed from engaged stakeholder inputs, and community development activities. These perspectives will (i) inform and enhance the roadmap being developed by the European Space Agency for the Atlantic Region, and (ii) found a seed Community of Practice of maritime-EO technology innovators for the Atlantic, focused on developing EO solutions to address Marine Strategy Framework, and Marine Spatial Planning ambitions. Rationale: As the Maritime Spatial Planning (MSPD) and Marine Strategy Framework (MSFD) directives are implemented across Europe, EU member states and aligning nations need innovative information gathering tools to monitor progress towards the goals of these two directives. Information from satellites can satisfy a number of these monitoring needs. The EO sector needs to demonstrate technological viability, and while doing so engage with policy makers and legislators to ensure information products are acceptable for monitoring and legal purposes. The Blue Economy project is a demonstration of this potential for Atlantic coastal states.
BUILDING TRUST IN DIGITAL ECONOMY This ITT is aimed at analysing and resolving the outstanding challenges related to IPRs protection in cloud-based EO data exploitation architectures and involves both legal and technical analysis including exploration of innovative concepts on [...]ARGANS LIMITED (GB)Digital Platform Servicesblockchain, platformsThis ITT is aimed at analysing and resolving the outstanding challenges related to IPRs protection in cloud-based EO data exploitation architectures and involves both legal and technical analysis including exploration of innovative concepts on the intersection of copyrights protection and blockchain technology.
Business Model Validation for Exploitation Platforms This activity shall validate the specific business model of the EODC initiative for its possible reuse in the context of the Exploitation Platform programmatic activities.EODC EARTH OBSERVATION DATA CENTRE FOR WATER RESOURCES MONITORING (AT)Digital Platform ServicesplatformsThis activity shall validate the specific business model of the EODC initiative for its possible reuse in the context of the Exploitation Platform programmatic activities.
CadasterENV Austria, Multi-Scale and Multi-Purpose Land Cover Monitoring System in Austria In order to meet the reporting obligations from international conventions, European directives and national legislations, countries are required to produce up to date, detailed and harmonised information on their land cover and its use, at [...]GeoVille (AT)Applicationsapplications, land coverIn order to meet the reporting obligations from international conventions, European directives and national legislations, countries are required to produce up to date, detailed and harmonised information on their land cover and its use, at different scales, and for different domains of applications. Austria initiated its Land Information System Austria (LISA) in 2010 with the objective to achieve a national consensus on how to perform a continuous mapping of the national land cover and monitor its use. The CadasteENV Austria project aimed at developing a national multi-scale and multi-purpose Land Cover mapping and monitoring system in Austria according to the national specifications defined by the LISA project. The principal objectives of CadasterENV Austria was – the Integration of Pléiades satellite data in the LISA production chain – the production of VHR land cover in Austrian urban agglomerations (10,000 km2) – the development of methods to detect areas with frequent changes (hot spots) based on high resolution satellite images (SPOT 4/5 in preparation to the Sentinel 2 exploitation) – the production of a hot spot change maps (Land Cover Change Alerts) for the whole of Austria. The project was extended with the GSE CadasterENV project to integrate Sentinel-2 into the existing Land Information System Austria (LISA), and to operationalize a national Land Monitoring System, which is multi-temporal (bringing the annual seasonality/variability of land cover / land use to LISA), multi-scale (integrating Sentinel 2 observations with VHR imagery from Pleiades and national airborne campaigns) and multi-purpose (responding to user needs from different land sectorial communities). Five S2-based innovative products were developed (HR Land Cover Mapping, Enriched VHR Land Cover Mapping, Land Cover Change Alert, Land Use Monitoring and Ecosystem Monitoring) and validated over a number of representative pilot areas.
CadasterENV Sweden, Multi-Scale and Multi-Purpose Land Cover Monitoring System in Sweden In order to meet the reporting obligations from international conventions, European directives and national legislations , countries are required to produce up to date, detailed and harmonised information on their land cover and its use, at [...]METRIA MILJOEANALYS (SE)Applicationsapplications, land coverIn order to meet the reporting obligations from international conventions, European directives and national legislations , countries are required to produce up to date, detailed and harmonised information on their land cover and its use, at different scales, and for different domains of applications. All Swedish stakeholders involved in land cover monitoring have emphasized the need for a homogenous and nationwide Land Cover database, which can be updated, on a regular basis and in a cost-effective manner. The objective of the CadasteENV Sweden project was to develop a national multi-scale and multi-purpose Land Cover mapping and monitoring system in Sweden, according to national user specifications. The system is comprised of two components: – a Land Cover mapping component based on a stratified approach which makes use of HR (SPOT-5 in prepararation of Sentinel 2) and VHR (Pleiades) data, combined with airborne data (orthophotos and LIDAR data) and existing land information databases in Sweden. – a Land Cover Change Alert component to detect areas with fast land cover changes (hot spots). The project was extended to support methodological adaptations to Sentinel 2, and facilitate a national roll-out by the Swedish Environmental and Protection Agency (SEPA). The Swedish National Land Cover Mapping (called NMD) which will be released in January 2019 is based on the Land Cover data model and methods developed by CadasterEnv Sweden.
CITYSATAIR More than half of the world’s population is living in cities. According to the WHO air quality database 80% of people living in urban areas that monitor air pollution are exposed to air quality levels that exceed WHO limits. Narrowing down to [...]The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) (NL)Scienceair quality, atmosphere science cluster, atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric indicators, permanently open call, public health, scienceMore than half of the world’s population is living in cities. According to the WHO air quality database 80% of people living in urban areas that monitor air pollution are exposed to air quality levels that exceed WHO limits. Narrowing down to cities in low and middle income countries with more than 100 000 inhabitants, this number increases to 98%. To resolve urban air pollution problems a clear understanding of the local situation is essential. Low-income cities, which are most impacted by unhealthy air, usually have less resources available for a good reference network. It is here where a combination of low-cost sensors and satellite data can make a difference. So far, only very few studies aim at joining heterogeneous data sources of urban air quality, and to our knowledge no previous work has provided practical solutions which can be implemented in cities everywhere. We therefore propose to develop and demonstrate a methodology that is capable of exploiting the various available data sources, to combine them in a mathematically objective and scientifically meaningful manner, and to provide value-added maps of urban air quality at high spatial resolution.
Cloudfree Mosaic Platform Pathfinder This activity shall demonstrate platform efficiency in generatong a worldwide cloudfree Sentinel-2 mosaic at full resolutionEOX IT SERVICES GMBH (AT)Digital Platform ServicesplatformsThis activity shall demonstrate platform efficiency in generatong a worldwide cloudfree Sentinel-2 mosaic at full resolution
Coastal erosion 1 The Coastal Erosion project shall be conceived as EO application project that aim at developing innovative EO products and methods in response to authoritative end-user requirements. The Coastal Erosion project shall prepare the ground for a [...]I-Sea (FR)Applicationsapplications, coastal zone, ocean science clusterThe Coastal Erosion project shall be conceived as EO application project that aim at developing innovative EO products and methods in response to authoritative end-user requirements. The Coastal Erosion project shall prepare the ground for a long-term exploitation by large user communities, and is expected to provide substantial and concrete benefits to the targeted user communities. The source of EO data used, the novelty of the EO derived products, the innovating algorithmic approaches but also from the awareness and readiness of the user community involved. The innovative aspects of the Coastal Erosion project shall comply with the above prerequisite of the most innovative aspects of the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 missions of the European Copernicus initiative combined with the ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and SPOT archives to provide the best products suited to end user requirements over the past 25 year. The scope of the Coastal Erosion project is the development and demonstration of innovative EO products that will be used by users communities responsible to monitor and control this process. Together with the champion user organizations, a set of innovative products and services shall be developed, including a scientifically sound validation, a comprehensive user assessment and a representative service roll-out analysis. While maintaining the openness of the scope and domains of innovation, the Coastal Erosion project shall develop innovative approaches that best exploit the novel observational capabilities of the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 constellations. The Sentinel missions of the European Copernicus initiative brings new observational capabilities that were not available beforehand and, as a consequence, offers unprecedented opportunities to address these R&D priority issues. In particular the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 missions, used individually or jointly, significantly improve the quality and adequacy of High Resolution (HR) satellite observations in both radar and optical domains. In order to fully exploit these new capabilities, additional R&D efforts are needed. The Coastal Erosion project is expected to provide the ideal platform to undertake these R&D activities in close partnership with key user organizations that best represent their respective communities.
Coastal erosion 2 The Coastal Erosion project shall be conceived as EO application project that aim at developing innovative EO products and methods in response to authoritative end-user requirements. The Coastal Erosion project shall prepare the ground for a [...]ARGANS LIMITED (GB)Applicationscoastal zone, ocean science clusterThe Coastal Erosion project shall be conceived as EO application project that aim at developing innovative EO products and methods in response to authoritative end-user requirements. The Coastal Erosion project shall prepare the ground for a long-term exploitation by large user communities, and is expected to provide substantial and concrete benefits to the targeted user communities. The source of EO data used, the novelty of the EO derived products, the innovating algorithmic approaches but also from the awareness and readiness of the user community involved. The innovative aspects of the Coastal Erosion project shall comply with the above prerequisite of the most innovative aspects of the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 missions of the European Copernicus initiative combined with the ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and SPOT archives to provide the best products suited to end user requirements over the past 25 year. The scope of the Coastal Erosion project is the development and demonstration of innovative EO products that will be used by users communities responsible to monitor and control this process. Together with the champion user organizations, a set of innovative products and services shall be developed, including a scientifically sound validation, a comprehensive user assessment and a representative service roll-out analysis. While maintaining the openness of the scope and domains of innovation, the Coastal Erosion project shall develop innovative approaches that best exploit the novel observational capabilities of the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 constellations. The Sentinel missions of the European Copernicus initiative brings new observational capabilities that were not available beforehand and, as a consequence, offers unprecedented opportunities to address these R&D priority issues. In particular the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 missions, used individually or jointly, significantly improve the quality and adequacy of High Resolution (HR) satellite observations in both radar and optical domains. In order to fully exploit these new capabilities, additional R&D efforts are needed. The Coastal Erosion project is expected to provide the ideal platform to undertake these R&D activities in close partnership with key user organizations that best represent their respective communities.
Coastal Thematic Exploitation Platform Through the provision of access to large volumes of EO and in-situ data, computing resources, algorithm development space and the fundamental processing software required to extract temporal and spatial information from Big Data, C-TEP shall [...]ACRI-ST S.A.S. (FR)Digital Platform Servicesapplications, coastal zone, platformsThrough the provision of access to large volumes of EO and in-situ data, computing resources, algorithm development space and the fundamental processing software required to extract temporal and spatial information from Big Data, C-TEP shall provide a dedicated service for the observation and monitoring of our coastal environment and society. Integration of satellite EO data, in-situ sensor data and model predictions shall provide an effective means of analysing and understanding the many linked coastal processes across a wide range of space and time scales.
Commercial Operator Identity Hub (COIH): Identity as a Service for the Network of EO Resources In the context of Space 4.0 and its “EO Innovation Europe” concept, the European Space Agency (ESA) is forming a new ecosystem for exploitation of EO data under the name “Network of EO Resources”. The main goal is to bring the numerous and [...]DEIMOS SPACE S.L.U (ES)Digital Platform ServicesplatformsIn the context of Space 4.0 and its “EO Innovation Europe” concept, the European Space Agency (ESA) is forming a new ecosystem for exploitation of EO data under the name “Network of EO Resources”. The main goal is to bring the numerous and largely disparate EO datasets into a federated layer of exploitation platforms and enable the End-Users to perform research directly where the data is stored. Thus, the current paradigm “bring the data to the user” (users having to download enormous datasets to their premises and own massive infrastructures to process that data) will be replaced with the “bring the user to the data” paradigm, as the exploitation platforms will not only provide the raw data, but also a computing framework with specific tools and algorithms relevant to Earth Sciences. Federated Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure (AAI) is one of the key building blocks of this new ecosystem, aimed at providing a Single Sign On (SSO) experience for the users of the Network of EO Resources. In this context, the Agency has run several Pathfinder activities with the aim to align the Federation approaches among the various players in the Earth Observation domain and ensure these approaches are in-line with the AARC Blueprint Architecture and the technical practises in EduGain. To ensure the most cohesive operation of the Network of EO Resources, a centralised “IDaaS” (Identity as a Service) has been identified as the most suitable Identity and Access Management model, which is the subject of this service contract. The European Association of Remote Sensing Companies (EARSC) has been chosen by ESA to act as the Data Controller and Statutory Body for governing the IDaaS services resulting from this contract. The operational context of these services is a pure Business to Business (B2B) environment with no general public involved. The actors of this B2B environment are EARSC and the COIH service provider on one side, and commercial companies involved in the Earth Observation business on the other side.
COMMUNITY EARTH OBSERVATION INTELLIGENCE SERVICE: PROTOTYPING FOR SCALE At present NGOs/CSOs have limited expertise in accessing and utilizing EO data. This project is working with NGOs adressinghuman rights concerns and will develop methodologies for integrating in-situ (citizen data collection), drone and EO data [...]OMANOS ANALYTICS (GB)Digital Platform Servicespermanently open call, platforms, sustainable developmentAt present NGOs/CSOs have limited expertise in accessing and utilizing EO data. This project is working with NGOs adressinghuman rights concerns and will develop methodologies for integrating in-situ (citizen data collection), drone and EO data to enhance the collection of information and evidence on activities affecting human rights in developing countries
ConsIstent Retrieval of Cloud Aerosol Surface CIRCAS aims at providing a set of atmospheric (cloud and aerosol) and surface (albedo) products derived from S3A/SLSTR observations retrieved using the same radiative transfer physics and assumptions.The retrieval is based on the CISAR (Combined [...]RAYFERENCE SPRL (BE)Scienceatmosphere, scienceCIRCAS aims at providing a set of atmospheric (cloud and aerosol) and surface (albedo) products derived from S3A/SLSTR observations retrieved using the same radiative transfer physics and assumptions.The retrieval is based on the CISAR (Combined Inversion of Surface and Atmosphere pRoperties) algorithm. CISAR is an advanced mathematical method developed by Rayference for the joint retrieval of surface reflectance and atmospheric (cloud and aerosols) properties from observations acquired by space-based imagers.The CISAR algorithm relies on the FASTRE radiative transfer model that describes surface reflectance and atmospheric absorption/scattering processes. The lowest level represents the surface. The lower layer hosts the aerosols. Molecular scattering and absorption are also taking place in that layer which is radiatively coupled with the surface for both the single and the multiple scattering. The upper layer is only subject to molecular absorption.The inversion of the FASTRE model within the CISAR algorithm against satellite observations provides accurate estimates of the surface reflectance field, aerosol or cloud optical thickness and single scattering properties in each processed spectral band. An estimate of the retrieval uncertainty is also provided.As the proposed method retrieved both cloud and aerosol properties with the same retrieval algorithm, no cloud mask is needed to perform the retrieval. Additionally, the same algorithm can be applied over any type of surfaces, including dark or bright surfaces or water bodies.
CONSTRACK – Remote construction site monitoring Usually, construction projects are structured through different phases: analysis, planning, design, construction, closing and post monitoring.

The project execution phase (Phase 2 – Construction) is usually the longest phase in the project [...]
STARLAB BARCELONA SL (ES)Enterprisepermanently open call, urbanUsually, construction projects are structured through different phases: analysis, planning, design, construction, closing and post monitoring. The project execution phase (Phase 2 – Construction) is usually the longest phase in the project life cycle and it typically consumes the most energy and the most resources. Global construction companies cannot be physically present all along the execution phase to control the implementation of the construction on-site. Then, they are used to control advancement only from local contact reporting that may differ from the exact reality of the project status, and usually have high expenses in travelling around the different project sites to get frequent updates. So, monitoring this phase is crucial to prevent from financial, timing and quality risks. Construction companies are then actively looking after monitoring remotely those construction sites to limit their presence on site and frequently get an unbiased vision of the project status. The difficulty in applying automated techniques based on EO data to this market is the high degree of variability of features and processes to be detected and monitored. This project addresses this issue by concentrating on automated detection of anomalies and involving the construction companies to translate the anomalies into actual engineering information. The project is operating as a series of test cases to determine the viability of an eventual commercial market.
Contribution of Swarm data to the prompt detection of Tsunamis and other natural hazards (COSTO) The main objective of COSTO (Contribution of Swarm data to the prompt detection of Tsunamis and other natural hazards) project is to better characterize, understand and discover coupling processes and interactions between the [...]UNIVERSITY OF WARMIA AND MAZURY IN (PL)Scienceionosphere and magnetosphere, science, solid earthThe main objective of COSTO (Contribution of Swarm data to the prompt detection of Tsunamis and other natural hazards) project is to better characterize, understand and discover coupling processes and interactions between the ionosphere/magnetosphere, the lower atmosphere and the Earth’s surface and sea level vertical displacements. Natural Hazards induced by tsunamis, earthquakes and volcano eruptions occurring mostly around the areas with large human population have caused tragedies resulting in death of many people during and after these violent events, as well as inevitable environmental devastation. The proposed research effort targets to tsunamis that are the result of earthquakes, volcano eruptions or landslides. An early warning for tsunami occurrence, and especially an estimation of the amplitude of a tsunami is still a challenge. In the range approximately between 5 and 15 minutes, the waves generated at the sea surface associated with tsunami can reach ionospheric altitudes, creating measurable fluctuations in the ionospheric plasma and consequently in Total Electron Content (TEC). At an altitude of about 300 km, the neutral atmosphere is strongly coupled with the ionospheric plasma producing perturbations in the electron density (ED). These perturbations are visible in the TEC parameter calculated from the data acquired from dual-frequency GNSS receivers, as well as in the ionograms and resulting ED profiles. The COSTO project team will exploit existing modelling techniques for the identification and tracking of Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). Our methods are based on data assimilation methods using empirical models as background. These models based primarily on GNSS and ionosonde networks observations provide maps either of the TEC or of the ED at various altitudes. The less dense is the observing network, the highest is the uncertainty, which is the case over the oceans. The ionospheric-based tsunami detection method is much more accurate when based on the availability of dense networks of GNSS receivers and/or ionospheric sounders. These networks are sufficiently dense in the land, but there is a sparsity of observation points over the oceans. We believe that the use of Swarm data can shall improve the detection capability, especially over the oceans where the tsunami occurrence is expected. Therefore, TEC and ED models will be upgraded with the ingestion of dual-frequency onboard GNSS and Langmuir probe (LP) data from Swarm satellites, and advanced value-added products for tsunami early detection will be proposed. In the COSTO project, we will attempt to assimilate Swarm in situ LP ED data and TEC data into ED maps calculated from the 3D-TaD model at various heights. Ingesting in situ ED data from Swarm in the grids of TEC and ED, as well as taking into account the topside slant electron content observations from the POD GNSS antenna, will provide significant improvement in the temporal and spatial resolution of the ionospheric maps. Therefore, we expect to be able to specify more accurately the characteristics of TIDs triggered by the tsunamis. This is one of the main targets of the project: to ingest the Swarm ionospheric measurements in an evolved version of different algorithms developed by authors of this proposal to detect Medium-Scale TIDs (MSTIDs) related with tsunamis. We will also try to identify the typology of tsunamis that give rise of effects on the ionosphere, and those that do not and focus on different coupling processes and interactions between the ionosphere/magnetosphere and the lower atmosphere.
CORRIDOR AND ASSET MONITORING USING EARTH OBSERVATION – CAMEO CAMEO aims to boost the understanding and integration of satellite Earth Observation (EO) services by companies and agencies managing pipeline and energy transmission corridors, including underground electricity cables. This will be achieved by [...]Science [&] Technology Norway (NO)Enterpriseenergy and natural resources, enterprise, environmental impacts, generic platform service, infrastructure, securityCAMEO aims to boost the understanding and integration of satellite Earth Observation (EO) services by companies and agencies managing pipeline and energy transmission corridors, including underground electricity cables. This will be achieved by demonstrating the benefits of the EO based services in collaboration with asset managers and in-sector providers that do not traditionally use EO services. CAMEO will complete demonstrations where EO data is combined with traditional on-ground data and cutting-edge data processing and analytics techniques enabling improved monitoring insights. The two-year project is part of ESA’s “Expand Demand” initiatives with a focus on the Security sector. Natural gas pipeline network in Europe (Source: European Parliament)   CAMEO OBJECTIVES Show the added value of EO data to stakeholders in the corridor & asset monitoring domain. This will be addressed by gaining a deep understanding of the information needed by the end users and their working processes, and subsequently showcasing information services to The demonstration services will cover a diversity of environments in which the stakeholders operate, with three broad categories of services: Structural integrity (e.g. surface deformation, leak occurrence) Environmental and geo-hazards (e.g. flooding, wildfire, landslides, vegetation change) Threat assessment (e.g. third-party interference, encroachment) Implement the services using a “virtual platform” concept, where distributed sources of EO and non-EO data are integrated regardless of where geospatial data is hosted. EO service providers implement services in scalable cloud computing environments with information products combined with other data sources to deliver information to users. In-sector providers or end-users may process the information provided using their own algorithms thus turning the data into information with operational value. The In-sector providers play a crucial role in the solution as they can translate the end-user priorities and requirements and utilize the EO-based services.                 CO-DESIGN APPROACH WITH STAKEHOLDERS Successful implementation of CAMEO requires participation of stakeholders and end users in the corridor & asset monitoring domain in all stages of the project.   Stakeholders : Gasunie Pembina Innogy Enbridge Full details in the CAMEO project flyer.
CRITE: Coffee Rehabilitation in Timor-Leste This activity is a follow-up to a successful activation of the ESA EO Clinic offering support to to ADB’s Timor-Leste Resident Mission (ADB project “Preparation of a National Coffee Sector Development Plan for Timor-Leste”). Following the [...]Planetek Italia (IT)Sustainable DevelopmentThis activity is a follow-up to a successful activation of the ESA EO Clinic offering support to to ADB’s Timor-Leste Resident Mission (ADB project “Preparation of a National Coffee Sector Development Plan for Timor-Leste”). Following the promising first results of the feasibility study in using EO to characterise past and current coffee-growing practices, the main project activities include the definition, implementation and application at large scale of innovative methods to optical and SAR remote sensing data for coffee crop mapping and monitoring in Timor-Leste where most of the coffee plantations grow under a shade tree system. Planetek Italia continues the work with local stakeholders, including a more detailed assessment of the methodology. A dedicated mission to Timor-Leste took place for collection of in-situ validation data and capacity building. A prototype coffee plantation map is ready, based Sentinel-1/2 and an updated classification methodology which combines Machine Learning and Deep Learning Classifiers, integrating the information available about the shadow tree species, obtained in the field. First qualitative validation shows a higher performance of this methodology with respect to the first mapping done in the EO Clinic project. ADB contributes to this activity with logistics support to the validation exercise and capacity building support.
CROWDVAL: Using Crowdsourcing and Innovative Approaches to Evaluate and Validate ESA’s Land Cover Products The CrowdVal project had five main objectives:

Develop new innovative sampling schemes that allow a stratification and bias removal via road networks and that take other constraints into account for in-situ data collection;
Enhance [...]
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS (IIASA) (AT)Applicationsland cover, permanently open callThe CrowdVal project had five main objectives: Develop new innovative sampling schemes that allow a stratification and bias removal via road networks and that take other constraints into account for in-situ data collection; Enhance LACO-Wiki and LACO-Wiki Mobile with the new sampling strategies, functionality for opportunistic map evaluation on the ground, and the addition of auxiliary data sets including Flickr geo-tagged pictures and time series of NDVI; Create an open source version of LACO-Wiki Mobile; Demonstrate the enhanced tools through crowdsourcing data collection campaigns (online and in-situ) to validate the first land cover map of Africa at a 20m spatial resolution; and Investigate the possibility of developing a business model around an open source version of LACO-Wiki Mobile with a payment model around access to enhanced features, e.g. additional data sources, commercial satellite imagery, increased sample size, etc.
CryoSat Plus For Oceans (CP4O) The “CryoSat Plus for Oceans” (CP4O) project, supported by the ESA Support to Science Element (STSE) Programme and by CNES, was dedicated to the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data over the open and coastal ocean. The general objectives of the CP4O [...]SATELLITE OCEANOGRAPHIC CONSULTANTS LTD. (GB)Sciencealtimeter, coastal zone, oceans, polar science cluster, SAR, SARin, scienceThe “CryoSat Plus for Oceans” (CP4O) project, supported by the ESA Support to Science Element (STSE) Programme and by CNES, was dedicated to the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data over the open and coastal ocean. The general objectives of the CP4O project were: To build a sound scientific basis for new oceanographic applications of CryoSat­-2 data; to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the CryoSat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and to ensure that the scientific return of the CryoSat-­2 mission is maximised. However, whilst the results from CP4O were highly promising and confirmed the potential of SAR altimetry to support new scientific and operational oceanographic applications, it was also apparent that further work was needed in some key areas to fully realise the original project objectives. Thus, after the end of the Project in 2015,  additional work in four areas has been supported by ESA under a first Contract Change Notice (CCN): Developments in SARin data processing for Coastal Altimetry. Implementation of a Regional Tidal Atlas for the Arctic Ocean. Improvements to the SAMOSA retracker: Implementation and Evaluation & Optimised Thermal Noise Estimation. Extended evaluation of CryoSat­-2 SAR data for Coastal Applications. This CCN ended in 2016 and was followed by a second Contract Change Notice, currently on-going, on the improvement of the arctic ocean bathymetry and regional tidal atlas. A detailed description of the specific objectives under each of the four sub-themes (Open Ocean Altimetry, Polar Ocean Altimetry, Coastal Zone Altimetry & Sea-Floor Altimetry) can be found at http://www.satoc.eu/projects/CP4O/
CryoSat-2 for enhanced sea-ice thickness and ocean observations in Antarctica: “CryoSat+ Antarctic Ocean” Why has Antarctic sea ice experienced a small increase in extent over the past decades in stark contrast to the rapid decline observed in the Arctic? What role are the Southern Ocean and sea ice playing in controlling the Deep Water formation [...]MULLARD SPACE SCIENCE LABORATORY – UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON (GB)ScienceAntarctica, oceans, polar science cluster, science, snow and iceWhy has Antarctic sea ice experienced a small increase in extent over the past decades in stark contrast to the rapid decline observed in the Arctic? What role are the Southern Ocean and sea ice playing in controlling the Deep Water formation and thermohaline circulation and the melting of the Antarctic ice shelves and sea level rise? Only satellite remote sensing can provide the pan-Antarctic view required to fully understand these changes to the Southern Hemisphere’s sea ice and ocean fields in response to anthropogenic warming. Over the last 8 years CryoSat-2 (CS2) has allowed a radically new view of the ice covered Arctic Ocean, providing us with the first pan-Arctic sea ice thickness maps, dynamic topography and geostrophic currents, and indirectly a wealth of geophysical products ranging from Eddy kinetic energy (EKE), Ekman upwelling / downwelling, to snow on sea ice, and improved tidal models, or better resolved bathymetry at the bottom ocean. In Antarctica similar products have emerged but remain at a lower level of maturity. Specific challenges in the processing of the radar signal result from the complex surface characteristics of the ice covered Southern Ocean such as the sea ice flooding from snow loading or the highly fragmented and divergent marginal ice zone like nature of the sea ice cover. In addition, validation of sea ice and ocean products is hindered by the observational gap of in-situ and airborne data in the Southern Hemisphere. The overarching objective of this project is to address these issues by developing new approaches and algorithms that could be implemented in ESA’s CryoSat-2 ground segment processor to produce state of the art sea ice and ocean products that will be validated against a comprehensive dataset of airborne and in-situ measurements and result in scientific progress for our understanding of the Antarctic Climate system and ocean circulation. The main objectives of this project are: Perform a thorough review of the scientific and technical challenges Survey, collect and document all relevant data sets needed for the successful development of novel, observational and model-based snow thickness products. Develop, inter-compare and validate multiple approaches to sea surface height and sea ice thickness retrieval on Antarctic sea ice. Specific approaches to be considered are: Novel LRM/SAR/SARIN methods for leads, polynyas, open ocean and sea ice classification Along-track processors over leads, polynyas and open ocean for sea surface estimation Along-track processors over sea ice floes for sea ice thickness estimation Pan-Antarctic gridded products of dynamic ocean topography and geostrophic currents Pan-Antarctic gridded products of sea ice thickness Preliminary inter-comparison of along-track and gridded products developed in steps b-e Validation over selected tracks and key regions against in-situ and airborne data. Implement the algorithms developed above and assess their impact and usefulness in addressing the identified scientific challenges. Build a scientific roadmap for future development and evolution of knowledge about the snow layer on Arctic sea ice. The main outputs of the project will be: An Experimental Dataset and accompanying User Manual Algorithm description documents Validation reports An Impact Assessment A scientific Roadmap The biggest challenges the project faces are the difficulties in validating data products against sparse or preferentially sampled, in-situ data, and in proving that a new method is measurably better than an existing method when applied to inherently noisy data.
CryoSat+ Mountain Glaciers The purpose of this project is to quantify the volume, mass change and contribution to sea level change of mountain glaciers using dataset from the CryoSat satellite radar altimeter. Here we propose to generate mountain glacier elevation and [...]UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH (GB)Sciencecryosphere, polar science cluster, scienceThe purpose of this project is to quantify the volume, mass change and contribution to sea level change of mountain glaciers using dataset from the CryoSat satellite radar altimeter. Here we propose to generate mountain glacier elevation and elevation change by (i) evaluating the ability of the current CryoSat products, (ii) investigating and implementing processing strategies such as FBR filtering, novel retracking, swath processing, in order to improve the current CryoSat products, (iii) validating elevations and quantifying their errors. The resulting elevation and elevation change will be used to generate estimates of glacier volume and mass change and determine mountain glacier’s contribution to sea level change during the life period of CryoSat. We will integrate our results with existing studies of glaciers change to build a spatial and temporal picture of changes affecting mountain glaciers that will be advertise via scientific presentation and submission as journals articles.
CryoSMOS In recent years the possibility of using L-band space-borne radiometers for monitoring the Cryosphere has been investigated using data available from new space missions ((ESA SMOS and NASA Aquarius and SMAP). The interest in L-band relies on the [...]IFAC-CNR ISTITUTO DI FISICA APPLICATA ” NELLO CARRARA” (IT)Sciencecryosphere, science, SMOS, snow and iceIn recent years the possibility of using L-band space-borne radiometers for monitoring the Cryosphere has been investigated using data available from new space missions ((ESA SMOS and NASA Aquarius and SMAP). The interest in L-band relies on the very low absorption of ice at L-band and the low scattering by particles that are very small compared to the wavelength. As a consequence, in dry snow and ice the extinction is low and the penetration depth is very high, which open new opportunities to probe the soil or water under the ice, or the internal layers of the ice-sheet. The CryoSMOS project, which was funded by ESA as Support To Science Elements (STSE), aims at investigating this topic by testing the capabilities of SMOS in the monitoring of Antarctica ice sheet and ice shelves. SMOS data were first in-depth analyzed and it has been observed that Tb can show temporal dynamic trends in the ice shelves and near to the coast where the snow could be wet, while it is more stable in time, but presents significant spatial features in the inner parts of the continent. Moreover, small but significant Tb temporal variations are observed also in the internal part at H polarization. Four case studies, which are in-depth analyzed within the project, have been considered: the estimate of the temperature profile of the ice sheet; the capability of investigating bedrock topography; the study of the ice shelves stability ; the monitoring of wet snow. For each study case the SMOS data have been first interpreted by using different microwave emission models which use as inputs data collected on the ground, when available, or from glaciological models. Simulated and measured Tb is in general in good agreement confirming that most of the observed Tb spatial and temporal signatures can be theoretically explained. Model analysis also shows that a better knowledge of dielectric permittivity of ice (especially of its imaginary part which is indeed very small) is required to further improve the results. Starting from this, inversion algorithms have been developed in order to derive geophysical parameters from SMOS data. Main obtained results are: the retrieval of temperature profile of ice sheet for large portion of Antarctica where the ice-sheet is stable (i.e. velocity < 5 m/year) ; the monitoring of significant changes of ice shelf properties and the identification of their origin ( i.e. bottom or surface changes) and the study of its stability; the improvement of bedrock map in the area affected by large incertitude (i.e. > 500 m); the detection of melt events which can be used in combination to information derived from higher passive microwave sensors. SMOS derived products have been delivered and are free available at CATDS (https://www.catds.fr/Products/Available-products-from-CEC-SM/CryoSMOS-project) . Results will be better assessed and validated by additional data (when they will be available). Moreover, future activity should be devoted to the investigation of other regions (i.e. Greenland) and to better evaluate the use of new glaciological models which are able to improve retrieval algorithms.
CRYOSPHERE VIRTUAL LABORATORY EXPRO + Despite considerable research progress in understanding the polar region over the last decades, many gaps remain in observational capabilities and scientific knowledge. These gaps limit present ability to understand and interpret on-going [...]NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS (NO)Sciencecryosphere, polar science cluster, scienceDespite considerable research progress in understanding the polar region over the last decades, many gaps remain in observational capabilities and scientific knowledge. These gaps limit present ability to understand and interpret on-going processes, prediction capabilities and forecasting in the Arctic region, thereby hampering evidence-based decision-making. Addressing these gaps represents a key priority in order to establish a solid scientific basis for understanding earth science processes in the Polar Regions. The Cryosphere Virtual Lab aims at supporting the cryosphere scientific community to address those gaps promoting an Open Science approach, where sharing of data (e.g., EO satellite, in-situ, airborne, ancillary, high level products), knowledge, tools and results is at the center of the science process. Since more than 20 years, “Earth Observation” (EO) satellites developed or operated by ESA and other satellite operators are providing a wealth of data. The Sentinel missions, along with the Copernicus Contributing Missions, Earth Explorers and many other missions provide routine monitoring of our environment at the global scale, thereby delivering an unprecedented amount of data. This expanding operational capability of global monitoring from space, combined with data from long-term EO archive (e.g. ERS, Envisat, Landsat etc.), in-situ networks and models provide scientists with unprecedented insight into how our oceans, atmosphere, land and ice operate and interact as part of an interconnected Earth System. While the availability of the growing volume of environmental data from space represents a unique opportunity for science, general R&D, and applications, it also poses a major challenge to achieve its full potential in terms of efficiently accessing and combining the different datasets (EO data, airborne, in-situ…) and sharing scientific knowledge, tools and results in order to speed up the scientific process. Firstly, because the emergence of large volumes of data raises new issues in terms of discovery, access, exploitation, and visualization, with implications on how scientists do “data-intensive” Earth Science. Secondly, because the inherent growing diversity and complexity of data and users, whereby different communities – having different needs, methods, languages and protocols – need to cooperate and share knowledge to make sense of a wealth of data of different nature (e.g. EO, in-situ, model), structure, format and error budgets and speed up the scientific development process. Responding to these technological and community challenges requires the development of new ways of working, capitalizing on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) developments to facilitate the exploitation, analysis, sharing, mining and visualization of massive EO data sets and high-level products within Europe and beyond following an Open Science approach. Evolution in information technology provide new opportunities to provide more significant support to EO data exploitation within the Open Science paradigm. In this context, new ITC developments and the concept of Virtual laboratories make scientific networking, on-line collaboration, sharing of data, tools and knowledge among scientific communities not only possible, but also mainstream. The Cryosphere Virtual Laboratory (CVL) will become a community open science tool, where EO satellite data and derived products can be accessed, visualised, processed, shared and validated. In order to achieve this objective, the CVL shall provide access and facilitate sharing of relevant space and non-space data (aerial, UAV, coastal radar, in-situ etc.). Following an Open Science approach, the CVL shall mainly be designed to support scientist to access and share EO data, high-level products, in-situ data, and open source code (algorithms, models) to carry out scientific studies and projects, sharing results, knowledge and resources. The Cryosphere Virtual Laboratory will form part of an ecosystem of thematic laboratories capitalizing on ICT technologies to maximize the scientific exploitation of EO satellite data from past and future missions.
CTEO – CryptoTradeable EO EO derived information are increasingly being used as the basis for a range of sensitive decisions linked to commercial operations, public safety and environmental security. At the same time, developments in ICT capablity enable an expanded [...]Planetek Italia (IT)Enterpriseblockchain, permanently open call, platforms, securityEO derived information are increasingly being used as the basis for a range of sensitive decisions linked to commercial operations, public safety and environmental security. At the same time, developments in ICT capablity enable an expanded volume of information to be generating using distributed approaches such as cloud based storage and processing and platform based interactions, use of algorithms and proprietry datasets. This makes guaranteeing the integrity of both the data and the derived information more and more diffficult. This project is testing various Blockchain based approaches to support the different verification elements needed to guarantee the integrity of the data and the analysis. In particular, this project is investigating and testing approaches for dividing, encrypting and distributing large datasets (typical EO imagery) to a group of peers (e.g. in the ground segment and on-board) for enabling tradeable distributed processing, encrypting and distributing metadata in the peer-to-peer network, with guarantee of correct association to the related datasets, signing and uniquely identifying smart contracts (this may be also full-fledged algorithms) based on their input requirements and output products so that the P2P network can guarantee processing traceability and security and implementing a runtime environment suitable for running EO smart contracts, which is able to perform processing with specific execution time constraints, storage constraints, device usage constraints, network usage constraints, metrics constraints applied to output quality.
CYMS (Scaling-up Cyclone Monitoring Service with Sentinel-1) Tropical Cyclone (TC) observations over the global ocean are a key component in extreme events monitoring and in anticipating appropriate risk mitigation and emergency response at landfall. In particular, the Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP) of [...]CLS COLLECTE LOCALISATION SATELLITES (FR)Scienceocean science cluster, oceans, permanently open call, science, Sentinel-1, SMOSTropical Cyclone (TC) observations over the global ocean are a key component in extreme events monitoring and in anticipating appropriate risk mitigation and emergency response at landfall. In particular, the Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), allows tropical cyclone forecasters to access various sources that provide conventional and specialized data/products, including those from Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) and remote sensing observations, as well as forecasting tools on the development, motion, intensification and wind distribution of tropical cyclones. The operational delivery of high-resolution TC observations from SAR will significantly help the tropical cyclone forecasters of the six tropical cyclone Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) and the six Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) having regional responsibility to provide advisories and bulletins with up-to-date first level basic meteorological information on all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, typhoons everywhere in the world. Moreover, the unique ability of SAR systems to probe high resolution observations of the sea surface from space coupled with a strategy to maximize the acquisitions over TC will allow to start building a new database for science applications. The first demonstration of the Copernicus Sentinel-1 SAR capabilities was first triggered in 2016 under the SHOC campaigns of the ESA SEOM R&D program. The combination of high resolution and wide swath observations at C-band together with dual-polarization capability offers a unique opportunity to characterize the inner core storm structures. The late programming of S-1 acquisitions by ESA and the high quality of SHOC products has successfully illustrated the potentials of S-1 constellation mission to be part of a dedicated multi-missions hurricane observation strategy, including other sensors such as radiometers (SMOS, SMAP), and third party SAR missions (Radarsat-2, ALOS-2…). Since then, IFREMER and CLS together with ESA/ESRIN have continuously monitored hurricane with S-1 sensors on a best effort basis, while engaging an increasing number of potential end-users and stakeholders and starting several studies for science applications based on this dataset. The main objective of this proposed project is to scale up this operational service (hereafter called CYMS –CYclone Monitoring service with S-1), in view of its potential integration as part of a Copernicus Service. The service shall provide validated and fully acknowledged products, be consistent, standardized, interoperable and harmonized across international institutions and bodies supporting European policies and the international charter of risk management. The service includes not only NRT operational wind field products, but also an archive center ensuring a continual improvement cycle and full data uptake by stakeholders.
DACES – Detection of Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions Sources The project aims at developing a new methodology for detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission sources. CO2 data from OCO-2 and NO2, SO2 and CO data from Sentinel-5P are collocated. The plan is to analyze these data in synergy to better [...]FINNISH METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE (FI)Scienceatmosphere, atmosphere science cluster, carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, permanently open call, science, Sentinel-5P, TROPOMIThe project aims at developing a new methodology for detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission sources. CO2 data from OCO-2 and NO2, SO2 and CO data from Sentinel-5P are collocated. The plan is to analyze these data in synergy to better detect anthropogenic CO2 sources and plumes. In detail OCO-2 XCO2 data is deseasonalized and detrended, and further correlated/clustered to the spatial distribution of other species such as NO2, SO2, CO. Further a direct detection of emission plumes is done for anthropogenic sources using NO2, SO2 and CO datasets, and collocating the plumes with XCO2 data. The corresponding CO2 enhancements and ratios between different species at local level is then calculated. The project has been kicked-off the 5th October.
Datacube Demonstration for TPM The service shall enables advanced data access and retrieval capabilities on global to local / low to very high resolution EO products, based on OGC WCS and WCPS APIs. The project implements a showcase for Landsat European coverage and [...]MEEO S.R.L. (IT)Digital Platform ServicesplatformsThe service shall enables advanced data access and retrieval capabilities on global to local / low to very high resolution EO products, based on OGC WCS and WCPS APIs. The project implements a showcase for Landsat European coverage and validating he benefit via an Urban application over Eastern Austria.
Delay-Doppler Altimetry Studio This project aims at providing to the scientific community the means to understand and use the low levels of Altimetry data and how these data are processed, by providing them with a Fully Adaptable and Configureable Delay Doppler Processor  [...]isardSAT UK (GB)Sciencealtimeter, applicationsThis project aims at providing to the scientific community the means to understand and use the low levels of Altimetry data and how these data are processed, by providing them with a Fully Adaptable and Configureable Delay Doppler Processor  (DDP) and a friendly user interface (the Tool, to help them interacting with the DDP. The proposed DDP has different options from which the user will be able to choose in favour of their particular field of interest. The project also presents various (9) demonstrations of new features that can be investigated and retrieved when using these lower data processing levels. They are presented as successful cases tudies.
Development of pan-European Multi-Sensor Snow Mapping Methods Exploiting Sentinel-1 The main objective is the development, implementation and validation of methods and tools for generating maps of snowmelt area based on SAR data of the Sentinel-1 mission and the combination with snow products derived from optical sensors of [...]ENVEO – ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH OBSERVATION INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GMBH (AT)Scienceapplications, polar science cluster, SAR, scienceThe main objective is the development, implementation and validation of methods and tools for generating maps of snowmelt area based on SAR data of the Sentinel-1 mission and the combination with snow products derived from optical sensors of Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 missions. The developed algorithm will be used to generate multi-sensor pan-European snow products. A key activity of the project is the development of a retrieval algorithm for mapping extent of wet snow areas which exploits the full technical and operational potential of the Sentinel-1 mission. Round robin experiments between available algorithms will be carried out to select the optimum algorithm. The focus will be on the use of Interferometric Wide swath mode data which is the standard operation mode of Sentinel-1 over land surfaces. Particular attention will be paid to the capability of dual polarization data, and the exploitation of the high spatial resolution and geometric accuracy of the Sentinel-1 data. Because C-band SAR is not sensitive to dry snow, the combination with snow maps derived from optical sensor is required in order to obtain complete pan-European snow maps. We plan to use data of the Sentinel-3 sensors SLSTR and OLCI for the pan-European snow maps, and coincident Sentinel-2 based snow maps (with high spatial resolution) primarily for evaluation and assessment of uncertainty for the combined Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-3 snow product.
Discrete Bayesian Inversion of Satellite Gravity (DISG) Living Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Wolfgang Szwillus.

Density variations inside the mantle not only drive mantle convection but are also important indicators of rock composition variation. Satellite gravity measurements, [...]
CHRISTIAN-ALBRECHTS-UNIVERSITAET ZU (DE)ScienceGOCE, living planet fellows, science, solid earthLiving Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Wolfgang Szwillus. Density variations inside the mantle not only drive mantle convection but are also important indicators of rock composition variation. Satellite gravity measurements, like GOCE, are directly sensitive to large-scale density variations inside the Earth, but their potential is not yet fully used. Instead, density is typically estimated based on variations of seismic shear wave velocity. The gravity field is only used in a second step to estimate the viscosity structure of the Earth. Thus, in the classic approach, resolution of Earth’s structure and dynamics become entangled and there is no possibility for density variations unrelated to velocity variations. In this project I will rely on gravity data and seismological constraints to estimate the density distribution inside the mantle, without including any dynamical modelling. To achieve a fair combination of seismology and gravity, a good understanding of their respective uncertainties is required. For the gravity field, this mainly relates to uncertainties due to crustal structure and has already been studied, while seismic tomography models suffer from uncertainties due to different smoothing approaches. To estimate these, an ensemble of recent seismic tomography models will be converted to its equivalent representation as surface wave phase speeds, eliminating vertical smoothing. The gravity field and the surface wave speed maps will be used to find discrete anomalous volumes in the mantle in terms of their location, shape, density and seismic wave speed. Since both the number as well as the properties of the anomalous volumes are unknown, a novel Bayesian inversion method will be developed, that uses the transdimensional Monte-Carlo-Markov-Chain algorithm. With this technique an in-depth study of required model complexity, resolution limits and trade-offs is possible.
DryPan: Novel EO data for improved agricultural drought impact forecasting in the Pannonian basin The Pannonian basin is a sheltered region, with relatively low levels of precipitation (< 600 mm/year), therefore its surrounding mountains are considered a key water source. Over the last decades several drought episodes took place. [...]EODC EARTH OBSERVATION DATA CENTRE FOR WATER RESOURCES MONITORING (AT)Scienceagriculture, applications, climate, science, water resourcesThe Pannonian basin is a sheltered region, with relatively low levels of precipitation (< 600 mm/year), therefore its surrounding mountains are considered a key water source. Over the last decades several drought episodes took place. Scientific research groups with cross-border cooperation on drought monitoring and management were established including the Drought Management Centre for South-Eastern Europe (DMCSEE) (hwww.dmcsee.org) and the Pannonian Basin Experiment (PannEx). These act as a response to combat the increased frequency and intensity of dry spells and heat waves under climate change and the need to increase the capacity of the relevant stakeholders to manage drought events and their impacts. The DryPan project is funded by ESA and builds upon the experiences of the Interreg funded DriDanube products. DryPan’s objectives include: i) to develop and validate a set of novel Earth Observation products and enhanced data sets dedicated to characterise Drought processes in the Pannonian basin; ii) to foster new scientific results addressing some of the main priority areas of research in the region, where space technology may provide a valuable input; iii) to promote the use of advanced EO datasets for Drought Early Warning in the region by facilitating access to the developed products and results through a professional project web site exploiting advanced data access and visualisation tools; and iv) to develop a roadmap identifying additional science priorities as a driver for launching potential new development activities addressing the priorities of the Danube science communities in the timeframe 2020-2021.
DYNAMOS – Dynamic Mosaic Service DYNAMOS is being implemented as a cloud-based, dynamic mosaicking service, initially focussing on Sentinel-2 data. The service will provide users the ability to request the creation of large area mosaics according to their requirements, [...]SPACEMETRIC AB (SE)Digital Platform Servicesgeneric platform service, permanently open call, platforms, Sentinel-2DYNAMOS is being implemented as a cloud-based, dynamic mosaicking service, initially focussing on Sentinel-2 data. The service will provide users the ability to request the creation of large area mosaics according to their requirements, primarily in terms of area and time frames, image selection and prioritisation considerations. DYNAMOS is building on the concept of dynamic mosaic creation. Here “mosaic recipes” capture the required data details and processing steps for the on-demand creation of the mosaic. This also allows actual processing operations to only occur for areas directly demanded e.g. for visualisation or storing only the virtual recipe rather than a large dataset. The DYNAMOS activity is driven by a set of use cases in the agriculture and forestry application areas. The service is currently being designed for and deployed in AWS.
E-COMMERCE PLATFORM FOR MICRO-GEOSERVICES Innovative approaches to distribute services to both public and private markets, being more automated and interoperable, are expected to support EO companies in getting the best return on investment.
Micro geo-services based on the use of [...]
Deimos Engenharia (PT)Digital Platform ServicesplatformsInnovative approaches to distribute services to both public and private markets, being more automated and interoperable, are expected to support EO companies in getting the best return on investment. Micro geo-services based on the use of satellite data, delivering very focussed earth measurements (e.g. burnt area map/index, NDVI, land use, etc..), address potentially a wide audience, available to pay only a small amount, typically ordering products for a few tens of Euros, for their geo-temporal area of interest. Given the rather limited revenue margin, it is essential that scalable data storage and processing environments (e.g. on the cloud), but also e-commerce platform capabilities can be shared across value adding providers. In particular, the EO value adding sector is characterised by a high number of small and specialized companies operating in specific application domains; building the complete vertical stack by themselves. While they excel in their core business, they may lack IT competences and/or resources to publish and market their information extraction algorithms via modern on-line platforms. The purpose of this project is aimed then at simplifying and automating overall ICT deployment and commercial exploitation of micro geo-services from the Earth Observation sector. Through an online e-commerce platform (ECOMI) enabling advanced capabilities for publishing, ordering, delivery, accounting and billing, the elapsed time between service demand and service output shall be shortened, avoiding repetitive ICT tasks non related to EO value adder core activities, with an overall efficiency improvement and cost reduction. These micro geo services will be deployed and processed at remote cloud infrastructure (e.g DIAS) and will be executed on demand and scheduled for execution (e.g subscription based ). The ECOMI platform will matchmake EO value adders and the customers of EO services by providing the capability to commercialise their processing algorithm. The will be able to order these services and integrate in their decision making process or even to chain a set of micro geo services to create a work a complex workflow. The ECOMI platform aims to close the gap between the vast number of EO services available in the EO sector and discoverability of these services to the end users. ECOMI will then foster: B2B commerce where other value adders could also build high-value added services from further concatenation of micro services (e.g. through APIs and workflows) B2G benefitting from trusted and ready-to-use micro services easy to integrate in their processes B2C commerce where users likely make heavy usage of mobile devices in their daily life A validated pre-operational platform within 4 months of the project. This first version of the pre-operational platform will be ready for the services providers to register and publish their services for the end users. A business model will be defined. It will incorporate the price model, the subscription schemes , the revenue sharing model with the EO services providers , the envisioned cost structure etc. In terms of high level functionality, the ECOMI platform will offer interfaces for the service providers to register and deploy their services in the platform. The platform will provide a user interface for the end users to browse through the service catalogue and select the service they prefer. The catalogue will contain all the necessary information to assist the purchasing decision making process of the end user. The end users will be able to order the service after successfully payment. The users will also be view the status of the orders and receive notification when the product is ready for delivery. The end users will have the option to get the output data from the platform or via API.
e-Drift (Disaster risk financing and transfer) Disaster Risk Financing (DRF) can increase the ability of national and local governments, homeowners, businesses, agricultural producers, and low-income populations to respond more quickly and resiliently to disasters by strengthening public [...]CIMA RESEARCH FOUNDATION (IT)Enterpriseregional initiatives, scienceDisaster Risk Financing (DRF) can increase the ability of national and local governments, homeowners, businesses, agricultural producers, and low-income populations to respond more quickly and resiliently to disasters by strengthening public financial management and promoting market-based disaster risk financing. Recent improvements in quality and availability of satellite-derived characteristics increased the usability of EO products, allowing for better results and further synergies between actors, potentially expanding the market of Disaster Risk Financing applications. The Project: e-Drift (Disaster RIsk Financing and Transfer), financed by ESA and led by CIMA Research Foundation (IT), aims at improving the performance of the EO products and determine a fully automatic and reproducible way to service DRF applications. The e-Drift Virtual Platform enables an easy and timely access to various services and products guaranteeing high computing capability and direct access to the EO datasets of the Sentinel constellation. Services will cover several key areas of interest of the insurance market and of Countries that would like to transfer their sovereign risk. The e-Drift Virtual Platform will be released as a PAAS, so that can be embedded in the IT systems of the In-Sector Providers, and as a SAAS, so that can be used by In-Sector Providers by a unique and KISS End User Interface. The project is also creating a strong network between providers of value-added services utilizing EO data, In-Sector service providers for the insurance market and reinsurance companies as well as other concerned actors in the field like the World Bank, with the final purpose to create new or improved products and solutions for the Insurance sector. The project consortium includes leading companies in the EO value adding, and leading actors in the insurance market and concentrates as a pilot study area in South East Asia, more specifically on Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia.
Earth Observation Best Practices: Earth Observation for the Mining of Raw Materials (EO4RM) Mining takes place across the globe, often in very remote locations, dispersed amongst countries of differing degrees of wealth. Companies are facing multiple challenges throughout all life cycle stages from the exploration phase to mine closure [...]Deltares (NL)Enterprisebest practices, energy and natural resources, enterprise, mining, raw materialsMining takes place across the globe, often in very remote locations, dispersed amongst countries of differing degrees of wealth. Companies are facing multiple challenges throughout all life cycle stages from the exploration phase to mine closure and aftercare. Information derived from Earth Observation satellites can provide a continuous flow of information for the monitoring and management of subsidence, geology, biology, ecology, socio-economic development, resource availability and much more. It can also provide data about very remote and inaccessible areas. The Earth Observation for the mining of Raw Materials (EO4RM) project brings together experts from both the mining and the Earth Observation sector to identify key challenges of the sector and suitable solutions drawing from modern and future Earth Observation capabilities. The objective of the activity is to establish current information needs and best practices for the use of Earth Observation-based products and services. The scope of the activity includes all relevant business processes (“the mining life cycle”), from exploration and impact assessment to exploitation and post-closure, as well as the geoinformation needs of relevant regulatory agencies. The expected outputs of the project are: To unlock current Earth Observation services and products for the mining sector To showcase some of these services and products in a virtual platform To build a roadmap towards EO services best practice uptake. As part of the project, the consortium has engaged an International Industry Board (IIB), who will advise the consortium on the project throughout each stage.
Earth Observation data For Science and Innovation in the Black Sea (EO4SIBS) In the frame of the ESA Regional Initiatives, a set of coordinated activities between science, public sector, industry growth and infrastructure components focussing on regional priorities with high interest for Member States, a number of [...]UNIVERSITY OF LIEGE (BE)Sciencecarbon science cluster, ocean science cluster, oceans, regional initiatives, science, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3In the frame of the ESA Regional Initiatives, a set of coordinated activities between science, public sector, industry growth and infrastructure components focussing on regional priorities with high interest for Member States, a number of Science and Application projects are being runned for the Black Sea and Danube region. In this context, the EO4SIBS (Earth Observation data For Science and Innovation in the Black Sea) project is dedicated to Ocean Science. The objectives of this project are: To develop a new generation of algorithms that can ingest the wealth of spatial, temporal and spectral information provided by recent sensors providing high quality reference products for the blue and green ocean. In particular, regarding Ocean Colour derived products, innovative, high quality reference products of Chl-a, Total Suspended Matter (TSM) and turbidity products will be generated for the whole Black Sea geographical area, with a special focus on the western part directly influenced by the Danube River plume. Merged products will be generated to combine the high temporal resolution of S-3 OLCI and high spatial resolution of S-2 MSI satellite products and capture the optimal spatio-temporal coverage over the Black Sea waters. Concerning altimeter datasets, Level-3 Sentinel-3A [2016, 2018] and Cryosat-2 [2011, 2018] along-track product will be generated and their impact for coastal sea level trend study in the Black Sea assessed, and Level-4 multi-mission gridded products over the [2011, 2018] for improved mesoscale studies. Finally, 10 year (2010-2020) of improved gap-free high resolution salinity products will be generated. To collect new data to support the development of novel algorithms and to propose laboratory analyses of the highest quality To build novel composite products that integrate the satellite information with that from robotic platforms and numerical ocean models; To assess how the use of EO data improves our knowledge of good environmental status (GES) and climate change in the Black Sea. In particular three scientific use cases will be assessed : Physical oceanography and biochemical ecosystems; Black Sea level dynamics and trends; Deoxygenation. To disseminate the developed tools and products to the regional and international scientific and end-user community through the setting of a web platform, the organization of dissemination events, the participation to conferences.
Earth Observation for Poverty – EO4Poverty Poverty is one of the chronic problems of the XXI century and, despite the recent decrease of global economic inequalities between and within countries, in 2016 about 800 million people still lived in extreme poverty condition, with many of them [...]MindEarth (CH)Applicationsmapping/cartography, permanently open callPoverty is one of the chronic problems of the XXI century and, despite the recent decrease of global economic inequalities between and within countries, in 2016 about 800 million people still lived in extreme poverty condition, with many of them located in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. In this context, poverty alleviation programmes generally rely on data about local economic livelihood for identifying places with highest need for aid. Nevertheless, this information traditionally comes from patchy and logistically challenging household surveys which normally happen to be extremely expensive. As a result, policymakers and public sector stakeholders lack key data necessary for targeting anti-poverty programs or properly measuring their effectiveness. Given the challenges of scaling up traditional data collection efforts, in the past few years alternative strategies have been proposed for assessing the degree of poverty based on satellite data. The main objective of EO4Poverty is to implement a novel system based on advanced machine- and deep-learning techniques for generating national spatial poverty maps by jointly exploiting EO-based products (in particular derived from Copernicus Sentinel data) and non-EO based products (e.g., roads and transportation networks, social media) coupled with in-situ reference information gathered from publicly available household surveys. The project aims to improve existing approaches and to provide an easily transferable service for creating maps of actual support to the end-users.
Earth Observation for Surface Mass Balance (EO4SMB) The aim of the Earth Observation for Surface Mass Balance (EO4SMB) study is to investigate the feasibility of measuring ice sheet Surface Mass Balance from space.

Accurate measurements of Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance (SMB) are key to [...]
UNIVERSITY OF LANCASTER ENVIROMENT CENTRE (GB)ScienceGlaciers and Ice Sheets, polar science cluster, scienceThe aim of the Earth Observation for Surface Mass Balance (EO4SMB) study is to investigate the feasibility of measuring ice sheet Surface Mass Balance from space. Accurate measurements of Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance (SMB) are key to understanding the response of ice sheets to a changing polar climate. However, traditionally information on SMB has come from climate model simulations alone. This exploratory study will therefore investigate whether a new generation of satellite instruments can be used to directly quantify SMB, thereby addressing the growing need within the polar community for such data. In the EO4SMB study, we will focus primarily on exploiting measurements from ESA’s ice mission, CryoSat-2, to derive a portfolio of SMB parameters, which will cover the period 2010-2020. The study will focus on developing, validating and interpreting measurements at three test sites in Greenland, producing a proof-of-concept prototype SMB product, and undertaking several science use cases. Alongside this core activity, we shall also develop two exploratory techniques to leverage more information from satellite measurements; firstly by combining altimetry measurements with gravimetry data, and secondly by exploring the potential of Deep Learning to extract additional information from the CryoSat-2 satellite data. Through this project, we aim to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring SMB from space, and thereby establish the firm foundations for future operationally-derived SMB products.
Earth Observation services for the Black Sea Coastal Zone Management (EO4CZM) The Black Sea is a region of particular interest in terms of its past and present level of ecological degradation by anthropogenic influences among the European Seas and highly dynamic and complex eddy-driven circulation system. The Black Sea [...]TERRASIGNA (RO)EnterpriseBlack Sea and Danube, coastal zone, enterprise, generic platform service, Sentinel-2The Black Sea is a region of particular interest in terms of its past and present level of ecological degradation by anthropogenic influences among the European Seas and highly dynamic and complex eddy-driven circulation system. The Black Sea receives drainage from almost one-third of the continental Europe (five times its surface area) which, it is relatively isolated from the world ocean and is highly vulnerable to external environmental stresses. Its coastal areas are at the forefront of these pressures. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) should be used as a long term management tool, in order to protect the population, sustain exploitation of coastal resources and mitigate the effects of climate change and coastal hazards. A crucial element of the restoration and rehabilitation initiatives is the implementation of a continuous monitoring and operational observing system in the region. Earth Observation (EO) data can significantly contribute to the advance of oceanographic knowledge in the area. Services proposed to be developed will act as a multi-thematic information collection and analysis tool to support the decision-makers responsible for integrated coastal management implementation in the Black Sea coastal areas. It will also support the strategy concerning the Blue Growth in the region, by facilitating the access to key environmental variables related to aquaculture, pollution and habitat management. It will help develop sectors that have a high potential for sustainable jobs and growth, such as mussels farming, fisheries or coastal tourism.The following 5 thematic services are envisaged to be developed under the EO4CZM project: S1. Provision of a Sentinel-2 atmospheric corrected seamless mosaic, which will be available on-demand, for user defined regions and time periods. It will be produced taking full advantage of the high spatial resolution (10 m) and the multiple spectral wavelengths offered by the MSI sensor. S2. Thematic adapted remote sensing indices. This service will address particular, less complex needs and will include two categories of indices: i) general, well known indices, from an extensive list of pre-defined ones, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and ii) new custom defined indices (e.g. ice detection on the Danube main branches and water bodies extent). S3. High-resolution products for water quality monitoring in Danube Delta – high resolution, high quality datasets related to deltaic environments will be produces. The service will address several water related indicators, such as turbidity, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) or Chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentrations. S4. Aquaculture resources management – improved EO based products will be developed in order to assist aquaculture activities in the coastal region of the Black Sea. Of prime interest are coastal SPM and Chl-a concentration datasets, improved in terms of regional algorithms and spatial resolution (300 m and better). Such products can help stakeholders, using long time series of EO data, to better assess the potential of specific sites and to analyze the occurrence of negative effects of nutrient pollution that can trigger eutrophication processes. These essential water quality indicators will be afterwards integrated into an added value product, in the form of an aquaculture suitability index. S5. Mapping of coastal geomorphological features – anthropic modifications of sedimentary budget in the coastal region, together with other engineering works have led to an increased pressure on the coastal area and development of multiple erosion sectors, with important impacts on the economic activities (loss of beach areas for touristic purposes) or biodiversity (through habitat degradation). Thus, the current service will develop tools to analyze and monitor, based on time series of high resolution satellite data (Sentinel-2), the evolution of submerged sandbars, which are natural bathymetric features with significant role in coastal protection.
Earth System Data Lab (ESDL) The main objective of the Earth System Data Lab (ESDL) project is to establish and operate a service to the scientific community that greatly facilitates access and exploitation of the multivariate data set in the ESDL and by this means advances [...]BROCKMANN CONSULT GMBH (DE)Scienceland, marine environment, oceans, platforms, scienceThe main objective of the Earth System Data Lab (ESDL) project is to establish and operate a service to the scientific community that greatly facilitates access and exploitation of the multivariate data set in the ESDL and by this means advances the understanding of the interactions between the ocean-land-atmosphere system and society. To this end, the main tasks of the project fall into four main categories: infrastructure and operations, data sets and tools, use cases and scientific exploitation, and communication and outreach. The core part of the ESDL is the data in analysis-ready form, together with tools and methods to generate, access, and exploit the ESDL. The software to generate the ESDL and the data access APIs have been developed in the preceding project CAB-LAB. The modular open source approach adopted in CAB-LAB has proven to be convenient, flexible, and powerful and effectively meets user requirements. ESDL further evolves the range of available tools according to the requirements formulated by the different user groups of the service, while users may also contribute their own solutions and share them with others on github. The project continuously extends the datasets included in the ESDL. The additions imply both extending the data coverage in time as well as the introduction of completely new data sets.  Examples for specific requirements include marine parameters and the missing parameters from ESA’s CCI programme, e.g. Land Cover, Clouds, Aerosols, and Green House Gases. As for the software part, the main objective for these additions is to increase the ESDL’s utility and versatility and thus ultimately the uptake of scientific users, who will then have a powerful tool to advance our understanding of the Earth system dynamics. User uptake and scientific exploitation through the implementation of use cases is actively promoted by several tasks. The project adopts a three-stage approach and accordingly defines three different user types, Champion Users (CU, pre-defined use cases), Early Adopters (EA, Open call), and the Scientific Community (SC, free use). All ESDL users have in common that they are using the ESDL for scientific exploitation. While doing so, they are helping to improve the ESDL and the service provided, to increase the awareness for this activity and the offered service, and to extend the ESDL by contributing own source code and data sets. The ESDL is complemented by extensive outreach, communication, and training activites, which will foster user uptake, empower users to optimally exploit the ESDL, and eventually yield tangible scientific results in the form of peer-reviewed articles in international journals. Champion Use Cases: Four Champion use cases will be implemented in collaboration with distinguished experts  to demonstrate the wide range of different approaches that may be adopted with the ESDL: EM-DAT: Environmental conditions during societal catastrophes GEO-BON Colombia: Supporting regional initiatives in Colombia towards an Ecological Observation System Marine NPP: Primary productivity models in the ocean MDI: Biogeochemical Model Optimization Results: The Data Lab is accessible via registration https://www.earthsystemdatalab.net/index.php/interact/data-lab/ User Guide and Source code for Python and Julia https://www.earthsystemdatalab.net/index.php/documentation/user-guide/
EARTHSIGNATURE_AI Monitoring of cropland has been critical for several national and international programmes (e.g., Sustainable Development Goals – #2 Zero Hunger, European Common Agriculture Policy). Furthermore, early identification of crops is becoming more [...]CS SYSTEMES D’INFORMATION (FR)Enterpriseartificial intelligence, land cover, permanently open call, sustainable developmentMonitoring of cropland has been critical for several national and international programmes (e.g., Sustainable Development Goals – #2 Zero Hunger, European Common Agriculture Policy). Furthermore, early identification of crops is becoming more stringent in the context of climate change that can influence severely crop yields in some parts of the world. Given the size of te areas to be addressed and the volume of demand, EO based crop monitoirng must increasingly utiliuze AI based approaches. However, cropland classification is a challenging topic because of the constantly changing radiometric signature of crops due to seasons and weather and climatic conditions. This requires the development of a system capable of taking seasonal and weather and climatic variations into account. WIthin the framework of AI based approaches, in order to be economically sustainable, processing costs must also be reasonable. This project is addressing the entire processing and analysis chain for usiing ML analysis of EO data for crop classificaiton. This includes the identifiaction of which available land cover dataset(s) can provide the best levels of crop information and quality to perform an efficient and conclusive study while meeting specific user needs related to crop monitoring, testing different neural network (NN) configurations, including different input datasets and different approaches to represent data time-series as NN input which are then compared with a baseline classical approach and finally testing different Cloud computing configurations, including the use of the GPU. Beyond the calculation time assessment, this objective will inform on the trade-off between calculation time and platform configuration costs.
Ease QC – Development of a Service to detect anomalies in Earth Observation data using AI (Artificial Intelligence) models EASEQC aims at expanding the use of AI/ML for quality control of EO products. The traditional approach to quality control, usually involving deterministic models together with considerable manual intervention, is no longer feasible given [...]TELESPAZIO VEGA UK LIMITED (GB)Digital Platform Servicesartificial intelligence, generic platform service, permanently open call, platformsEASEQC aims at expanding the use of AI/ML for quality control of EO products. The traditional approach to quality control, usually involving deterministic models together with considerable manual intervention, is no longer feasible given increasing data volumes of EO data archives. ML/AI has potential to make the process of quality control more efficient. EASEQC focuses on the development of semi-supervised ML models for detection anomalies in EO products. This entails that models can be trained with limited training data and that a model is capable of identifying generally anomalous data products i.e. different anomalies can be detected by the same model. The service is being implemented in a cloud environment and will be fully accessible via an API.
Education Platform This activity will provide a platform for educational purposesSINERGISE LTD. (SI)Digital Platform Servicesplatforms, training and educationThis activity will provide a platform for educational purposes
EO Clinic: Characterisation of Dilijan National Park Forest Ecosystems, Armenia EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Armenia Office
Requesting activity: Mountain Forest Ecosystems Transformations Digital Platform
Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA)

EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG6 [...]
GeoVille (AT)EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Armenia Office Requesting activity: Mountain Forest Ecosystems Transformations Digital Platform Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA) EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG6 (Forestry) Work Order number: EOC0004 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2020 May 06 Work Order end: 2020 Sep 25 Background Armenia is located at the junction of the biogeographic zones of the Lesser Caucasus and the Iranian and Mediterranean zones and exhibits both a great range of altitudinal variation and a diversity of climatic zones. Together, this has resulted in a diversity of landscapes and ecological communities with a distinct flora and fauna, including many regionally endemic, relict, and rare species. Across much of the country, these landscapes face moderate to severe deforestation and overgrazing pressures, corresponding in high rates of erosion, increasing soil salinity, lowered soil fertility, and loss of biodiversity. The main cause of land and forest degradation in North-Eastern Armenia, where the majority of the forests of the country are located is the deforestation and overexploitation of forest resources. Dilijan National Park is one of the four national parks of Armenia. Most of it is located in Tavush Province. It is known for its forest landscapes, rich biodiversity, medicinal mineral water springs, natural and cultural monuments, and extensive network of hiking trails. The National Park was established in 2002 on the basis of the Dilijan State Nature Reserve, which in its turn was established in 1958 on the basis of the former Dilijan and Kuybishev forest enterprises. The change of the status from state reserve to national park was conditioned by several objective reasons, such as inevitability of commercial activity in the area, presence of numerous settlements, including Dilijan town with its mineral water resorts, Yerevan-Ijevan railway line passing through its whole territory and others. Despite its unique biodiversity, rich natural-historical and cultural landscapes and huge eco-touristic potential, serious treats to ecosystems exists due to a dense population living within the national park, developed infrastructures, uncontrolled tourism, illegal logging, poaching and non-sustainable use of natural resources. In order to support the Armenian government strategy to rehabilitate degraded forests and increase forest cover significantly, in the Dilijan National Park area UNDP Armenia is focussing its efforts to better understand the past forest ecosystems transformations, the land use and land cover changes, and in general, all the socio-environmental processes in the past and today that affect the sustainable management of forest resources. In the earlier project “Mainstreaming sustainable land and forest management in mountain landscapes of north-eastern Armenia” in collaboration with the Global Environment Facility (GEF), UNDP Armenia concentrated efforts on analysing seven forest enterprises out of existing 19 forest enterprises in country. UNDP Armenia is looking to develop an updated methodology for forest inventory and management, also including satellite EO inputs. A successful demonstration of the methodology could essentially ease the way for activities planned for the remaining 12 forest enterprises and protected areas. Problems to be Addressed and Geospatial Information Gaps The required EO services shall be designed to reveal important lessons on management efficiencies for the Dilijan area as a state reserve (before 2002) and for Dilijan National Park (since 2002). Understanding the impact of population, infrastructure development and increasing tourism the forest ecosystems is crucial to develop more effective management and nature conservation measures. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Land Cover and Land Use Classification and Associated Changes Service 2: Forest Mapping Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0004_WOR_V1.0.pdf
EO Clinic: Characterisation of Waste Sites Along the Lim River in Serbia EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Serbia Office
Requesting activity: Automated Floating Waste Mapping
Requesting activity type: Grant

EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG5 (Energy and Natural Resources), TG8 (Transport), TG9 (Urban), [...]
Everis Aeroespacial y Defensa S.L.U. (ES)EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Serbia Office Requesting activity: Automated Floating Waste Mapping Requesting activity type: Grant EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG5 (Energy and Natural Resources), TG8 (Transport), TG9 (Urban), TG10 (Water Resources Management) Work Order number: EOC0005 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2020 Mar 18 Work Order end: 2020 Oct 05 Background Environmental protection continues to present challenges in Serbia, inadequate waste management being one of the most serious threats to the environment. River pollution, poor waste management in areas that can affect rivers, and illegal dumping are significant problems. UNDP Serbia needs help in identifying the exact locations and volume of waste along the rivers and thus provide input for the plans to remove the sources of pollution and prevent creation of new ones. This initiative is a part of UNDP’s support to the Serbian Ministry of Environmental Protection in their efforts to tackle the problem of floating waste in rivers, in particular in the Drina and Lim rivers. The Serbian ministry cooperates with environmental ministries in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro in a joint regional initiative, since the Drina and the Lim are transboundary rivers. An important aspect of the required support is mapping the illegal dump sites along the riverbeds. This waste gets into streams at times when water level rises, thus causing environmental harm to watercourses downstream, as well as economic losses (e.g. lost revenues from hydropower electricity generation, tourism, fishing, shipping). The UNDP Serbia project is in the concept phase. Apart from mapping (illegal) dump sites, the initiative also includes actions aimed at improving local waste management practices, local actions, and development of a roadmap for resource mobilisation by municipalities. UNDP Serbia is also coordinating the plans with the Ministry of Environmental Protection in order to exploit the synergy with their ongoing efforts on improving waste management nationally and regionally. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Waste Site Inventory Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0005_WOR.pdf
EO Clinic: COVID-19 Impact on Agricultural Practices in Moldova EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Moldova Office
Requesting activity: Collaborative UNDP platform response to COVID-19
Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA)

EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG1 (Agriculture), TG11 [...]
e-GEOS (IT)EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Moldova Office Requesting activity: Collaborative UNDP platform response to COVID-19 Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA) EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG1 (Agriculture), TG11 (Non-EO Information and Analytics) Work Order number: EOC0007 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2020 May 28 Work Order end: 2020 Sep 18 Background The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on a small and open economy and a fragile local business community as the one in the Republic of Moldova is expected to be significant. The crisis is transforming the landscape, new business models will be adopted, once solid supply chains will disappear, and new ones will be established. The vulnerable groups in Moldova will disproportionately suffer from the crisis and the losses due to decreased mobility and economic activity. The rising income and non-income inequalities will affect the modest yet positive achievements of the country and its people when it comes to achieving the localized SDGs. With around 1 million of migrant Moldovans abroad, and given the deteriorating conditions in many destination countries, migration is an important crisis transmission channel and declining remittances will hardly hit the local economy. Under the current circumstances and given the unpredictable and complex conditions in which we all operate on the ground, the Government of Moldova managed to come up with specific targeted immediate response measures (for the duration of the State of Emergency) and specific short-term initiatives to support the most vulnerable people and the business community. While such measures are lifesaving for many, a comprehensive impact assessment is required to understand the depth of the crisis and provide for medium and long-term measures commensurable with the negative impact and responding to the local emerging needs. Moreover, additional robust evidence is needed by the Government to take rapid tactical decisions to minimize spread and the future losses due to the impact of the crisis on the social, economic and environmental dimensions of human development. In order to respond to the current crisis, raise awareness of the central and local administrations, support with evidence-based decision making, and assess the impact of the crisis induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, UNDP and the Government are merging efforts to create a national collaborative platform for new evidence, to include satellite Earth Observation, big data (in particular on mobility) and other types of data in a multi-layered platform with multiple points and levels of access and visualisation of core products at national level, with the possibility to zoom in at the most granular level. Problems to be Addressed and Geospatial Information Gaps Geospatial EO data is missing to a large extent and not used in Moldova and other countries in this region for development purposes. Moreover, given the current COVID-19, EO and other new types of data is urgently required to provide for: 1) Additional evidence around what is happening on the ground; 2) Improve situational awareness of the local authorities around COVID-19 and spread; 3) Support in assessing the immediate and long-term social and economic impact of COVID-19; 4) Support in building an Early Warning System for the Government of the Republic of Moldova. Approximately 70% of the Moldovan population in rural areas depends on agriculture for their livelihoods. About 55% of the approximately 2 million ha of agricultural land is arable, and used for annual crop production: maize, wheat, sunflower, barley, oilseed, soybean, sugar beet. Highly fertile soils can be found mostly in the north of the country and the Dniester River Valley. Here, conditions are adequate especially for the production of cereal grains, maize, fruits (apples, plums, walnuts), vegetables, etc. In the current COVID-19 pandemic context, many of the Moldovans living in affected Western European countries (Italy, Spain, etc.) have returned or are returning to Moldova. It is believed this segment of the population is at the moment taking on employment opportunities in the agricultural sector, outside of urban areas. The limitations in mobility due to the pandemic, additionally to the influx of previously expatriated citizens creates a complex situation, with an obvious lack of overview information on the status and timing of the agriculture-related seasonal activities, and the possible impact on food production and supply chains. The present EO Clinic support will contribute to the monitoring of the agricultural production (focused on strategic crops) and the estimation of the impact of COVID-19 on the local agricultural practices, with particular focus on HVA (high value-added) agriculture. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Cropland Distribution and Status Service 2: Mobility Trends to Reveal Agricultural Practice Anomalies Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0007_WOR_v01.pdf Final Presentation: EOC0007_FPR_v4.pdf
EO Clinic: COVID-19 Impact on Air Quality in Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Ukraine Office, UNDP Moldova Office
Requesting activity: Collaborative UNDP platform response to COVID-19
Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA)

EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG2 [...]
Everis Aeroespacial y Defensa S.L.U. (ES)EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Ukraine Office, UNDP Moldova Office Requesting activity: Collaborative UNDP platform response to COVID-19 Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA) EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG2 (Climate Change), TG8 (Transport), TG9 (Urban), TG11 (Non-EO Information and Analytics) Work Order number: EOC0009 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2020 Jul 21 Work Order end: 2020 Oct 05 Background The COVID-19 crisis is transforming the social and economic landscape of many countries, with measures adopted including physical distancing, travel restrictions, transition to teleworking, etc., depending on epidemic phase and local context. With the lockdowns many new business models are adopted, solid supply chains are affected and new approaches are appearing. COVID-19 in Ukraine: In Ukraine, the national authorities imposed comprehensive quarantine measures at an early stage of the COVID-19 surge. Mobility and transport within and between cities and regions (Oblasts) reduced drastically. Negative effects across the country’s growing economy quickly emerged, as enterprises in large numbers had to halt operations completely or were forced to adapt to a minimum of demand and market activity. The Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce and Industry estimates that about 700,000 small and medium enterprises in the service sector and educational institutions which employ 3.5 to 4 million people have closed. Whereas the full impact is yet to be established, diminishing of productive sectors and decline in income from both formal and informal economic activity will cause a significant backlash to progress that has been recorded on important social and economic development indicators, especially at local and regional level. COVID-19 in Moldova: The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on a small and open economy and a fragile local business community as the one in the Republic of Moldova is expected to be significant. The vulnerable groups in Moldova will disproportionately suffer from the crisis and the losses due to decreased mobility and economic activity. The rising income and non-income inequalities will affect the modest yet positive achievements of the country and its people when it comes to achieving the localised SDGs. With around 1 million of migrant Moldovans abroad, and given the deteriorating conditions in many destination countries, migration is an important crisis transmission channel and declining remittances will hit the local economy hardly. The Republic of Moldova responded to the COVID-19 outbreak by imposing a set of restrictive measures which covered travel bans in and outside of the country, implementing social distancing and sanitation protocols, as well as restricting on business activities. The policies aimed at reducing the spread of the virus and supporting the nation healthcare system have significantly disrupted public life and economic activity, with World Bank forecasting a 5.4 decrease in GDP due to the Coronavirus pandemic. In the long-term the impact of the pandemic is yet to be determined but the forecasts suggest a sharp deterioration in activity. A fall in remittances will further depress private consumption while the disruption of supply chains and recession in key economic partners will reduce exports. On the production side, the outbreak will reduce reducing domestic output, with HORECA, construction, transport and manufacturing being most affected. The optimistic forecasts suggest that the economy is expected to bounce back to around 4 percent in 2021 and to moderate at 3.6 percent in 2022, however the recovery is conditioned on the capacity of Governments to understand how the crisis continues to affect national business community and society. Crisis Response: In order to respond to the current crisis, raise awareness of the central and local administrations, support with evidence-based decision making, and assess the impact of the crisis induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, UNDP together with the Ukrainian and Moldovan governments are stepping up efforts to collect new evidence, including from satellite Earth Observation (EO), in a multi-layered and multi-granular information approach. Problems to be Addressed and Geospatial Information Gaps Geospatial EO data is missing to a large extent and not yet fully used in Ukraine and Moldova for development purposes. Moreover, given the current COVID-19 crisis, EO and other new types of data is urgently required to provide for: 1) Additional evidence around what is happening on the ground, especially in the absence or delayed collecting of statistical and other public data; 2) Improve situational awareness of the local and regional authorities around COVID-19 and its spread; 3) Support in assessing the immediate and long-term social and economic impact of COVID-19; 4) Support in building an Early Warning System (for the Government of the Republic of Moldova). In the current COVID-19 pandemic context, the governments of Ukraine and Moldova have expressed strong interest in having the capability to characterise the consequences of the pandemic on environmental conditions (i.e. environmental indictors). One of the information gaps concerns overview and detailed information on the status of air quality and emissions due to transport and industry. The present EO Clinic support will contribute to the work of UNDP and the governments to close this information gap and to better understand the complex “before and after” situation in both countries, created by the limitations in mobility, changes in economic activity, and the additional influx of previously expatriated citizens. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Regional and Local Air Quality Indicators Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0009_WOR.pdf
EO Clinic: Mitigation of Climate Change Risks in the Agricultural Sector of Cambodia EO Clinic support requested by: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Regional Economic Development Program IV (RED IV), Cambodia
Requesting activity: Identification of surface water resources for the mitigation of [...]
GeoVille (AT)EO Clinic support requested by: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Regional Economic Development Program IV (RED IV), Cambodia Requesting activity: Identification of surface water resources for the mitigation of climate change risks in the agricultural sector of north-western Cambodia Requesting activity type: Grant EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG1 (Agriculture), TG2 (Climate Change), TG4 (Disaster Risk Management), TG10 (Water Resources Management) Work Order number: EOC0010 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2020 Jul 28 Work Order end: 2020 Sep 21 Background Cambodia is heavily affected by climate change. The rainy season is becoming more irregular and rainfall is often delayed but more frequent. In the Tonle Sap catchment area there have been repeated severe floods in recent years, but at the same time a growing number of droughts (see also the GIZ study Transboundary Water Resource Management in the Lower Mekong Basin – Joint Project Flood and Drought Thailand and Cambodia Sub Basins 9T/9C, August 2018). The droughts, which have now become very severe, directly threaten the existence of thousands of small farmers in the western and northern provinces of Cambodia. The availability of water is of decisive importance for further economic development of north-western Cambodia. It is essential for the fight against rural poverty and malnutrition, since most of the rural population lives from agriculture and the poverty rate in this region is above country average. Every year, marginalised groups of the population which are supported by the GIZ program Regional Economic Development IV (RED IV), are acutely threatened by crop failures to fall (back) below the poverty line. Many households in northwest Cambodia earn their living by growing rice, cassava or vegetables, all agricultural products that depend on sufficient and regular rainfall. The above-mentioned study comes to the conclusion that in the coming years, both floods and droughts can be expected to increase, while at the same time the pressure on water resources increases. RED IV is an extensive program with SDC (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation) co-financing working on the promotion of agricultural value chains in the north-western part of Cambodia. Water management is an important issue for the program, which has been working since October 2019 on an analysis of the local availability of surface water in the north-western provinces of Cambodia. The present EO Clinic support will help define options for the construction of water infrastructure and recommendations for the improvement of water management, in order to maintain and secure the water resources of the rural population. Problems to be Addressed and Geospatial Information Gaps There is currently no systematic water management in Cambodia. Some of the reservoirs date back to the 1970s, but they are often in poor condition and completely inadequate in terms of volume and integration into local infrastructures. Local authorities on district and communal level have no comprehensive overview of the existing water infrastructure and the availability of surface water resources (natural or man-made). There is no connection between the development of agricultural clusters and a systematic development of water infrastructure. Local authorities have insufficient capacities and knowledge to develop a water management strategy. Data availability in Cambodia is a challenge, especially when it comes to fine scale. Cambodia has at this point no official data of the nature required by RED IV. Mapping the extent of surface freshwater (streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, reservoirs, irrigation canals, creeks) at regional scale and monitoring its dynamics at regular and frequent time intervals is sought after. However, currently available data from Cambodian authorities are either out of date or not accurate enough. Presently, GIZ and its partners have some familiarity with products such as the USGS Landsat Dynamic Surface Water Extent. The level of detail of these products is however often considered insufficient. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Waterbody Inventory and Dynamics Service 2: Detailed Waterbody Inventory Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0010_WOR_V1.0.pdf
EO Clinic: Natural Wealth and Sovereign Risk EO Clinic support requested by: World Bank Group (WBG) Finance, Competitiveness & Innovation Global Practice (FCI GP), Long Term Finance Unit (EFNLT)
Requesting activity: Natural Wealth and Sovereign Risk
Requesting activity type: Other: [...]
Everis Aeroespacial y Defensa S.L.U. (ES)EO Clinic support requested by: World Bank Group (WBG) Finance, Competitiveness & Innovation Global Practice (FCI GP), Long Term Finance Unit (EFNLT) Requesting activity: Natural Wealth and Sovereign Risk Requesting activity type: Other: Global Program on Sustainability (GPS) EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG1 (Agriculture), TG11 (Non-EO Information and Analytics) Work Order number: EOC0008 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2020 Jul 15 Work Order end: 2020 Oct 05 Background A well-developed financial sector that enables long-term financing for countries’ strategic sectors– government, SMEs and corporates, physical infrastructure & housing, and agriculture – is crucial for inclusive economic growth and for achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. The activities of the Term Finance Unit (EFNLT) within the World Bank’s Finance, Competitiveness & Innovation Global Practice (FCI GP) assist in bridging funding gaps for these key strategic sectors by developing capital markets and increasing the supply of institutional investors’ assets (primarily pensions and insurance) to fund long-term investments in strategic sectors such as infrastructure, housing and agriculture. The World Bank’s Global Program on Sustainability (GPS) aims to integrate environmental and other sustainability considerations into public and private decisions, by providing policy makers and the financial sector with the necessary metrics and tools. This approach involves looking beyond GDP and traditional financial metrics to include accounting for environmental risks and opportunities and valuing natural capital and ecosystem services. Within the proposed activity “Natural Wealth and Sovereign Risk”, EFNLT aims to conduct assessments on how environmental risks impact the financial sectors of different countries. The project plans to use data from various sources, including on agricultural crop types and crop health, to bring more detail into existing sovereign Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) data. This aims to build on WAVES, a GPS precursor activity, as part of an ongoing donor-funded program that has been renewed for the next 3 years. Problems to be Addressed and Geospatial Information Gaps The information gaps in the scope of the present World Bank support request are related to agricultural crop status and crop health, compared across countries. At the moment the related data available to the bank team is often inconsistent, not sufficiently granular and not made available with a sufficient frequency. The bank team currently only has country-level wealth data on an annual frequency to compare crop data to. These are highly aggregated and modelled such that direct comparisons are difficult. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Crop Types and Crop Health Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0008_WOR.pdf
EO Clinic: Preparation of a National Coffee Sector Development Plan for Timor-Leste EO Clinic support requested by: Asian Development Bank (ADB), Timor-Leste Resident Mission (TLRM)
Requesting activity: Coffee and Agroforestry Livelihood Improvement Project
Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA)

EO Clinic [...]
e-GEOS (IT)EO Clinic support requested by: Asian Development Bank (ADB), Timor-Leste Resident Mission (TLRM) Requesting activity: Coffee and Agroforestry Livelihood Improvement Project Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA) EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG1 (Agriculture) Work Order number: EOC0002 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2019 Jul 01 Work Order end: 2019 Sep 12 Background Improvements in coffee production and processing offer one of the clearest pathways for poverty reduction and growth of the non-oil economy in Timor-Leste. Coffee is Timor-Leste’s largest non-oil export and is grown by an estimated 37.6% of all Timorese households. Approximately 52,000 hectares are planted with coffee but it is reported that more than half of the planted area consists of unproductive old trees. As a result, yields are low, with an average yield of 150–200 kg of green beans per ha. This is only 21% of the average yield in Southeast Asia and 10% of the yield achieved by productive plantations. Relatively simple practices including replanting, pruning and improved farm management have been shown to triple the yield per unit area for a typical household and raise households’ net income from coffee production by a factor of 2.7. It is also widely recognized that Timor-Leste has the potential to sell an increasing share of its coffee production to differentiated specialty markets that pay price premiums relating to quality, origin, production processes and environmental sustainability. Achieving this potential re-quires careful processing and handling of coffee as it moves through the value chain from coffee farms to final consumers in the domestic or international market. Several development partners have been supporting farm rehabilitation and quality improvements by providing grant funds to individual cooperatives and NGOs or by providing assistance to the government. There has been good progress in farm some areas but serious challenges remain. This request for support is meant to provide better geospatial data to design the development coffee industry. Problems to be Addressed and Geospatial Information Gaps Information is needed on the location, extent and state of the coffee plantations, as well as patterns in land use change related to (and affecting) coffee plantations. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Past and Current Coffee-Growing Areas and Farming Conditions Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0002_WOR_v03.pdf
EO Clinic: Shoreline Mapping in the Gaza Strip EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Gaza Office / Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People (PAPP)
Requesting activity: Building Capacities in Remote Sensing Technologies in the Gaza Strip
Requesting activity type: Technical [...]
GeoVille (AT)EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Gaza Office / Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People (PAPP) Requesting activity: Building Capacities in Remote Sensing Technologies in the Gaza Strip Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA) EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG2 (Climate Change), TG3 (Coastal Zone Management), TG4 (Disaster Risk Management), TG9 (Urban) Work Order number: EOC0011 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2020 Aug 18 Work Order end: 2020 Sep 29 Background In the recent years, the Gaza Strip has been experiencing rapidly-evolving environmental changes, related especially to land use, coastal erosion and agricultural production, in conjunction with flooding and drought problems. Due to the lack of planning and monitoring by different stakeholders, this has led to serious and complex problems, including risk to residents in coastal areas and food insecurity. Monitoring and detection of such environmental changes and assessment of their trends as well as their consequences are necessary for future development. UNDP is working to launch projects on the protection of the Gaza shoreline, where detailed information is needed on the forces driving the coastal erosion, which was observed historically and is expected to continue in the coming years. Without adequate measures, this is considered as a real risk for the coastal environments and the residents living near the shoreline, especially in the western side of the Gaza Strip. This also causes considerable economic loss for the people of Gaza. In general, in Palestine and the Gaza Strip the approach of inclusion of remote sensing and satellite Earth Observation (EO) in planning and monitoring activities is still in its early stages, due mainly to the limited number of remote sensing specialists. There is a pressing need to mainstream the culture of remote sensing in the context of Palestine and specifically in the Gaza Strip, where changes are sometimes manmade and can be massive. UNDP is planning an intervention aiming to increase the local capacities in utilising remote sensing in planning and monitoring the different rehabilitation and development activities aiming to overcome relevant knowledge gaps. The supported UNDP project aims to build capacities in remote sensing applications for sustainable development in the Gaza Strip. The present EO Clinic support will contribute to creating a complete and up-to-date analysis of the Gaza shoreline, providing insights in coastal erosion and accretion processes and associated risks. Additionally, it will contribute to the UNDP-supported training programme by providing high-quality EO training materials and support in delivering those trainings. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Coastal Change Mapping Service 2: Capacity Building Support Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0011_WOR_v01.pdf
EO Clinic: Snow and Ice Mapping in Kazakhstan EO Clinic support requested by: Asian Development Bank (ADB), Kazakhstan Resident Mission (KARM)
Requesting activity: Republic of Kazakhstan: Mobilizing finance to help achieving Sustainable Development Goals
Requesting activity type: [...]
e-GEOS (IT)EO Clinic support requested by: Asian Development Bank (ADB), Kazakhstan Resident Mission (KARM) Requesting activity: Republic of Kazakhstan: Mobilizing finance to help achieving Sustainable Development Goals Requesting activity type: Knowledge and Support Technical Assistance (KSTA) EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG4 (Disaster Risk Management), TG10 (Water Resources Management) Work Order number: EOC0006 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2020 May 07 Work Order end: 2020 Sep 15 Background ADB is supporting the government of Kazakhstan in creating a platform among development partners and mobilising finance to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Kazakhstan’s commitment to realising the 2030 SDG Agenda is in line with the country’s aspirations to improve people’s quality of life as envisioned in the 2025 Strategic Development Plan as well as in the Kazakhstan 2050 Strategy. The recently kicked-off KSTA is aligned with key operational priorities of Strategy 2030 of ADB by mainstreaming the use of high-level technologies in Developing Member Countries (DMC). The KSTA is also fully aligned with the country partnership strategy for Kazakhstan, 2017–2021, which highlights ADB’s role in assisting with managing the social impact of technology solutions in areas such as municipal services, e-commerce, agri-business, green economy, and finance. National Sustainable Development Strategies (NSDS) are based on several sustainable goals, including SDG 11 – “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe resilient and sustainable”. The city of Nur-Sultan and surrounding areas are affected by river floods. In September 2019 ADB in partnership with ESA agreed to provide technical support to KGS (Kazakhstan Gharysh Sapary) to improve flood simulation and calculation of water volume in reservoirs for the Nura and the Ishim river basins. KGS is the state-owned space entity that has been appointed by the Committee on Water Resources of the Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources and by the Committee for Emergency Situations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to provide solutions to mitigate flood-related hazards and risks. Problems to be Addressed and Geospatial Information Gaps The technical approach that is being discussed by the stakeholders for solutions to mitigate the flood-related issues is quite comprehensive. It implies the use of EO, in-situ observations and hydraulic modelling, in order to predict flood scenarios, and how water levels will evolve during certain rainfall regimes. In the end there is a need to develop a model prototype with the following parameters: water velocity and flow directions, and predicted areas of flooding. However, the scope of the foreseen support may be divided in different phases and modules. The scope of the present RFP is limited to demonstrate some baseline products and trend analysis through the use of optical and SAR data to map river and lake ice and their evolution in time. River ice controls the winter flow regime of rivers and compromises the operation of hydrometric stations, governs the water intake and discharge activities of municipalities and businesses. Particularly during spring break-up, ice can create jams and floods that endanger infrastructure such as bridges. The users would like to understand better the advantages and limitations of the EO-based datasets that could contribute to the water balance and flood risk modelling, in particular when confronted with information layers they might have from other sources. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Snow Cover Dynamics Service 2: River and Lake Ice Dynamics Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0006_WOR_v01.pdf
EO Clinic: Strengthening Drought Resilience in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands in Ethiopia EO Clinic support requested by: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Ethiopia Office
Requesting activity: Strengthening Drought Resilience in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SDR-ASAL)
Requesting activity type: Technical [...]
Everis Aeroespacial y Defensa S.L.U. (ES)EO Clinic support requested by: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Ethiopia Office Requesting activity: Strengthening Drought Resilience in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SDR-ASAL) Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA) EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG1 (Agriculture), TG2 (Climate Change), TG8 (Transport), TG9 (Urban), TG10 (Water Resources Management), TG11 (Non-EO Information and Analytics) Work Order number: EOC0012 Work Order status: Under Execution Work Order start: 2020 Sep 25 Work Order end: Background Over 7 million people live in the Afar and Somali Regions in Ethiopia. Most of them are pastoralists and agro-pastoralists who depend on semi-mobile livestock for their livelihoods. Currently their economic and social systems are under pressure due to population growth and the impact of climate change (increasing frequency and severity of droughts and floods). GIZ has a programme in place, called the Strengthening drought resilience (SDR) programme to help facing this situation. Furthermore, GIZ in collaboration with the Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Natural Resources, has developed the “Strengthening Drought Resilience in Arid and Semi-Arid lands” (SDR-ASAL) program. The objective of this programme is to develop a holistic approach for land rehabilitation in this area. One of the main aspects of SDR-ASAL is to rehabilitate degraded water catchments and pasture areas in dry valleys. In this initiative, state and non-state actors together with pastoral and agro-pastoral communities have created the conceptual foundations for the rehabilitation and use of dry valleys and their productive use. Some measures that can be developed are for example simple dry-stone and the construction of weirs to reduce the speed of runoff water and to retain eroded soil in the river channel. The objective is to build water spreading weirs/cascades in suitable locations (dry valleys) to control flash floods from the highlands and direct some of the precious water to low-lying plains where it can be stored in the soil. This will allow reintroducing agricultural practices. In addition, groundwater aquifers can be fed rather than letting the water rush through the valley unused. This technique was developed in the 1990s and tested very successfully in various countries in western Africa. It is now introduced in the Ethiopian lowlands starting 2014 and ever since has been further adjusted to the local conditions. There is a huge potential in the Ethiopian lowlands to improve rural development and the livelihood systems by this type of rehabilitation of degraded watersheds. Problems to be Addressed and Geospatial Information Gaps The overall purpose of the present EO Clinic activation is to support GIZ Ethiopia and its partners in the site selection process (site identification and delineation) for future weir construction project activities using EO data, i.e. to conduct a site suitability analysis. “In order to identify the most suitable project sites dry valleys for their project, GIZ Ethiopia created a catalogue of site selection criteria called “Cascade Suitability Matrix – GIZ SDR”. This catalogue includes physical, biological and social location factors that are combined to identify most suitable areas for project implementation. Examples are physical aspects (sufficient stones and sand available for construction, closest permanent water point, road access), biological aspects (predominant soil type, signs of cultivation), social aspects (proximity of marketplace, presence and maintenance of enclosures, proximity of the next hamlet/village, number of hamlets/villages in this area). In the absence of data on dry streambeds, it is expected that the Contractor develops a limited AoI within the AFAR region by performing a hydrological analysis on an available DEM to identify likely stream beds. The AoI should exclude permanent streams (i.e. streams of the greatest Strahler value). The Contractor shall perform the above analysis and present/discuss the result, a suitable AoI consisting of a buffer region around likely dry stream beds to the stakeholders prior to the main site suitability analysis. The buffer shall be chosen keeping in mind the distances mentioned in the Cascade Suitability Matrix. It is acknowledged that not all factors defined in the Cascade Suitability Matrix (physical, biological and social) can be mapped with EO. The Contractor shall identify which factors can be characterised from space, and select satellite imagery with resolutions suitable for the detection of the features described in the matrix (e.g. villages). No general minimum mapping unit or resolution are defined, as these will depend on the solution provided by the Contractor. Based on EO information, a scoring matrix shall be completed. The data will be used to identify most promising/suitable new project sites for the effective and sustainable rehabilitation and use of degraded land in dry valleys of the Ethiopian lowlands. The most suitable sites will be evaluated for future projects. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Factors Identification and Assessment Service 2: Site Suitability Map
EO Clinic: Surface Water Mapping in Kazakhstan EO Clinic support requested by: Asian Development Bank (ADB), Kazakhstan Resident Mission (KARM)
Requesting activity: Republic of Kazakhstan: Mobilizing finance to help achieving Sustainable Development Goals
Requesting activity type: [...]
e-GEOS (IT)EO Clinic support requested by: Asian Development Bank (ADB), Kazakhstan Resident Mission (KARM) Requesting activity: Republic of Kazakhstan: Mobilizing finance to help achieving Sustainable Development Goals Requesting activity type: Knowledge and Support Technical Assistance (KSTA) EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG10 (Water Resources Management) Work Order number: EOC0003 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2019 Dec 17 Work Order end: 2020 Apr 15 Background ADB is supporting the government of Kazakhstan in creating a platform among development partners and mobilising finance to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Kazakhstan’s commitment to realising the 2030 SDG Agenda is in line with the country’s aspirations to improve people’s quality of life as envisioned in the 2025 Strategic Development Plan as well as in the Kazakhstan 2050 Strategy. The requesting KSTA is aligned with key operational priorities of Strategy 2030 of ADB by mainstreaming the use of high-level technologies in Developing Member Countries (DMC). The KSTA is also fully aligned with the country partnership strategy for Kazakhstan, 2017–2021, which highlights ADB’s role in assisting with managing the social impact of technology solutions in areas such as municipal services, e-commerce, agri-business, green economy, and finance. National Sustainable Development Strategies (NSDS) are based on several sustainable goals, including SDG 11 – “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe resilient and sustainable”. The city of Nur-Sultan and surrounding areas are affected by river floods. In September 2019 ADB in partnership with ESA agreed to provide technical support to KGS (Kazakhstan Gharysh Sapary) to improve flood simulation and calculation of water volume in reservoirs for the Nura and the Ishim river basins. KGS is the state-owned space entity that has been appointed by the Committee on Water Resources of the Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources and by the Committee for Emergency Situations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to provide solutions to mitigate flood-related hazards and risks. Problems to be Addressed and Geospatial Information Gaps The technical approach that is being discussed by the stakeholders for solutions to mitigate the flood-related issues is quite comprehensive. It implies the use of EO, in-situ observations and hydraulic modelling, in order to predict flood scenarios, and how water levels will evolve during certain rainfall regimes. In the end there is a need to develop a model prototype with the following parameters: water velocity and flow directions, and predicted areas of flooding. However, the scope of the foreseen support may be divided in different phases and modules. The scope of the present request is limited to demonstrate some baseline products and trend analysis through the use of optical and SAR data to map water body extents and monitor their evolution in time, as well as the use of radar altimetry to monitor surface water levels. The users would like to understand better the advantages and limitations of the EO-based datasets that could contribute to the water balance and flood risk modelling, in particular when confronted with information layers they might have from other sources. Visualising multitemporal data via a geoportal is also required, as well as presenting cost estimates for multi-annual service provision. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Inventory of Water Bodies and Associated Dynamics Service 2: Virtual Water Level Monitoring Stations Service 3: Estimates of Total Water Volumes Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0003_WOR_v1.2.pdf
EO Clinic: Urban Mobility Plan Development in Chisinau, Moldova EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Moldova Office
Requesting activity: Urban Mobility Plan Development / Urban Collaborative New Evidence Platform
Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA)

EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG8 [...]
GeoVille (AT)EO Clinic support requested by: UNDP Moldova Office Requesting activity: Urban Mobility Plan Development / Urban Collaborative New Evidence Platform Requesting activity type: Technical Assistance (TA) EO Clinic relevant Thematic Groups: TG8 (Transport), TG9 (Urban), TG11 (Non-EO Information and Analytics) Work Order number: EOC0001 Work Order status: Completed Work Order start: 2019 May 23 Work Order end: 2019 Jul 17 Background Massive and speedy urbanisation provides both development opportunities but also threats to sustainable human development and social inclusion. Cities like Chisinau are growing in an uncontrolled manner, without clear development plans and strategies for sustainable and green urban growth. This provides for major risks related to the social exclusion and marginalisation of certain groups, lacking or under-developed infrastructure, threatened urban security and safety, emergence of new problems related to health, air pollution, traffic congestion, unauthorised or illegal constructions, sometimes worst suboptimal urban mobility and so on. On the other hand, urbanization provides for new opportunities in housing, education, urban mobility, development of new infrastructures, energy transition, green technologies, etc. UNDP Moldova is establishing a new evidence platform, i.e. a collaborative platform for engaging all relevant stakeholders in the generation and use of new evidence deriving from big, thick and spatial data. UNDP and its local partners will use the new evidence to generate insights and understand development patterns and then use the new evidence for experimentation work, i.e. generation and testing of safe-to-fail solutions to achieve SDGs at local level. Initially, the platform is to cover capital of the republic, the Municipality of Chisinau. The longer-term ambition is to connect many other municipalities, partners and traditional and emerging donors. Smaller cities that could become poles of growth in the future are of particular interest (Cahul, Ungheni, Balti, Orhei and similar). Problems to be Addressed and Geospatial Information Gaps The Government of Moldova and the Municipality of Chisinau are interested in characterising and understanding the urban development patterns and in co-designing (together with citizens) safe-to-fail experimental solutions to solve emerging problems or (better) anticipate what might happen in the next 5–10 years or so. One major problem in Chisinau is urban mobility. With the support of UNDP, the city is creating an urban mobility plan, in which existing and new options for urban transport will be developed (including public transport). Detailed, up-to-date, consistent and reliable information is however scarce on the size and distribution of the population, on the proportion of the population that has convenient access to public transport, on the location and occurrence patterns of traffic congestions, and on gaps in small infrastructure (bike lanes, paved surfaces, sidewalks, etc.) that could alleviate congestions. Furthermore, information is needed to understand the long-term evolution of land use and fragmentation patterns, for urban planning, for the prevention of the negative impacts of urbanisation, and especially for the siting of new infrastructure (e.g. for a planned city bypass road) and the access to green areas. The latter is seen as key to enable multi-actor partnerships between stakeholders responsible for urbanism, environment, health, education (social cohesion), leisure, etc. UNDP also requires support with the cross-checking and innovative merging of satellite-based information with existing non-satellite data, and the generation of specific insights and patterns to be used for experimentation purposes. Information Services to be Delivered Service 1: Urban and Peri-Urban Land Use/Land Cover Classification and Associated Changes Service 2: Census-Based Population Distribution Service 3: Case Study Definition and First Insights into Recent Population and Mobility Trends Project Documents Work Order Report: EOC0001_WOR_V1.pdf Further Reading July 2019 UNDP article: Chisinau’s Data Collaborative: Moving with the Times August 2019 news item: Supporting the Urban Development in Chișinău, Moldova
EO Innovation Platform Testbed Poland The project shall validate procurement mechanisms for a cloud-based resource tier, offering bundled infrastructure (IaaS) and data services (DaaS) to the users, based at minimum on MERIS full resolution, S-2 and Landsat data, possibly extending [...]CREOTECH INSTRUMENTS SA (PL)Digital Platform ServicesplatformsThe project shall validate procurement mechanisms for a cloud-based resource tier, offering bundled infrastructure (IaaS) and data services (DaaS) to the users, based at minimum on MERIS full resolution, S-2 and Landsat data, possibly extending to S-1 and S-3 data.
EO Law – EO derived information in support of Law Enforcementerived information in support of Law Enforcement The EO Law project aims at demonstrating the benefits of using EO based information together with state of the art ICT data analytics and non-EO data fusion in support of Law Enforcement in various domains, from environment to terrorism, and [...]GMVIS SKYSOFT S.A. (PT)Enterpriseplatforms, securityThe EO Law project aims at demonstrating the benefits of using EO based information together with state of the art ICT data analytics and non-EO data fusion in support of Law Enforcement in various domains, from environment to terrorism, and counter proliferation. For this purpose the consortium that will develop the EO Law has engaged relevant users and stakeholders that work in the domains covered in the project, providing context and related requirements to support the definition of service specifications, in order to develop capabilities that can really tackle operational problems of the various areas in support of law enforcing. The domains and services that will be approached in the project are the following: Environmental Crimes -Illegal Logging. In the last few years, illegal logging has emerged as a serious worldwide concern in the forest sector. By its nature of being illegal it is also clandestine, making it difficult to estimate with precision how much wood is logged illegally, where exactly, and by whom. What is known though, is that illegal logging remains a very big problem despite existing efforts to fight it. In this context, the consortium will develop services that can help on the investigation and mitigation of the consequences that result from the illegal logging activities, namely: Detection of routes for movement of timber Detection of forest change Detection of logging support infrastructure   Crimes against humanity – As crimes against humanity are still occurring on a regular basis, there are in contrary often not “visible” to the wider public. This is based mainly on the fact that hostile actions are taken place most of the times in remote and less-accessible areas, where accessibility is limited either due to e.g. armed conflicts or wars, or due to governmental restrictions. As the amount of in-sight information rapidly increased during the last years due to e.g. social media, the confidence level of the information overload was decreasing making it harder to distinguish between “wrong” or “right”. EO-data and EO-derived information can be seen as an independent information source suitable to verify on-sight information and to gain a more sound evidence of actions taken place. The services that will be provided are: Multi-criteria mass grave site suitability model Fire detection in settlements Settlement development & change detection   Terrorism and organized crime – Societies today constantly face terrorist and organize crime actions, which require new methods for modelling and analysis, inherited from various sectors and technological domains. Law enforcement organizations, analysts and field operators fighting terrorism and organized crime need front-line integrated technologies to support their cooperative work. The goal of the services will be spatially depict the activities of different terrorist organizations by means of generalized locations, anomaly characterization/interpretation and also activity analysis. Preparing helpful and applicable/realistic services requires the fusion of multi-source data combining unstructured (descriptive and informational data sources) and structured geospatial data (vector and satellite data) as well as information from open source and public databases like social media networks, crowdsource information etc. The services that will be provided are: Comprehensive and contextual imagery intelligence analysis combing EO data and media sources Hotspot detection layer with potential training camps Hotspot detection layer with potential abnormal activities related to terrorism and organized crime   All the services will be deployed through a virtual web platform that will be used for service ordering, processing and delivery. This platform will be composed by a set of software components integrated together and implemented on a data-rich cloud infrastructure so that the EO data can be accessed online and without the need to transfer it from external sources.
EO Mammals Earth Observation (EO) data has been extensively used over the years to assist on the management of marine mammal populations either by establishing protected areas where stakeholders’ activity are reduced, or by minimizing the impact of [...]THE OCEANIC PLATFORM OF THE CANARY ISLANDS (ES)Applicationsapplications, permanently open callEarth Observation (EO) data has been extensively used over the years to assist on the management of marine mammal populations either by establishing protected areas where stakeholders’ activity are reduced, or by minimizing the impact of anthropogenic threats. It is considered a basic and essential tool for the conservation of species, both by researchers and governments. Some examples include weekly predictions of fin whale (Balaenop-tera physalus) distribution that represent a valuable conservation tool in marine protected areas to prevent collisions with ships. Remotely sensed environmental parameters have the potential to identify biological hotspots for cetaceans and to therefore establish areas of marine conservation priority. Satellite measurements of ocean have proved an effective tool to map the environmental variables and processes occurring. It is the main tool for measuring ocean productivity (ocean colour) and its response to climate change/variability. Other variables also related with the presence and movements of cetaceans can be measured from space, e.g. sea surface temperature, sea surface height, etc. This project aims to identify biological hotspots for cetaceans and help the management of marine protected areas, using Earth Observation and other collaborative network’s data.
EO Network of Resources Exploitation Platforms are the central element of ESAs Earth Observation (EO) Innovation Europe concept which envisages an open network of EO Exploitation Platforms based on coordinating expertise spread across Europe. The concept aims at the [...]CLOUDEO AG (DE)Digital Platform ServicesplatformsExploitation Platforms are the central element of ESAs Earth Observation (EO) Innovation Europe concept which envisages an open network of EO Exploitation Platforms based on coordinating expertise spread across Europe. The concept aims at the increased integration of EO data and information for a much broader use, for scientific, social and economic purposes, as well as for the generation of new commercial applications and services by helping the user to work with the data. A Resource Tier Layer which consists of processing data platforms provides the back-end functionality and is the environment where users can host their tools, algorithms andservices. The Data and Information Access Services (DIAS) platform, procured by ESA on behalf of the Commissions Copernicus Programme, is an example of one of foundation blocks of the European EO Resource Tier. The front-end layer of the exploitation platformswill be populated also from various EOEP-5 Block-4 activities (e.g. evolved Thematic Exploitation Platforms, Datacubes, tools) including scientific projects and applications for both public and commercial benefit. ESA intends to procure processing services for ESA exploitation activities from the various existing European Earth Observation Resource Providers and to incentivise this Network of EO Resources to contribute to a common framework harmonising their service offerings to users.The objective of this tender is to select a Prime Contractor for the overall Network of Resources contract execution, with a contract commitment of a 3 year period and an optional 2 year extension. The Prime Contractor will be tasked to provide and maintain a Network of Resources Directory and to have a Help Desk to provide support to exploitation projects and users requesting services or support for their needs. The initial and subsequent on-boarding of Resource Providers will be performed by the Prime Contractor via the ESA Best Practice approach with the first calls planned to be issued in 2019. These calls will extend the mission coverage for exploitation projects to include non-Sentinel missions and to procure processing services for both Sentinel and non-Sentinel missions from various Information and Communication Technology (ICT) providers hosting the sets of mission data. Subsequent calls will be made to support exploitation activities as additional missions and platform services need to be integrated into the Network of Resources. While the scope is the provision of Network of Resource Services for ESA exploitation projects, the Prime Contractor will be requested to promote their services also to other customers e.g. National, European, and World Wide.
EO tracking of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea from public satellites One of the most significant unknown factors in marine debris is the flux of plastic from land based sources into the marine environment. This project is testing techniques to combine EO and UAV data to detect different types and volumes of [...]ARGANS LIMITED (GB)Enterpriseoceans, permanently open callOne of the most significant unknown factors in marine debris is the flux of plastic from land based sources into the marine environment. This project is testing techniques to combine EO and UAV data to detect different types and volumes of plastic in order to establish a methodology to characterize this flux in hotspot areas which are the main sources of plastic.
EO4CBI: Earth Observation for City Biodiversity Index (DUE Innovator III Series) Capturing the status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services in urban landscapes represents an important part of understanding whether a metropolitan area is developing in a sustainable manner. The City Biodiversity Index (CBI) was [...]SPACE 4 ENVIRONMENT (LU)Applicationsapplications, urbanCapturing the status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services in urban landscapes represents an important part of understanding whether a metropolitan area is developing in a sustainable manner. The City Biodiversity Index (CBI) was developed by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) as a tool to evaluate the state of biodiversity in cities and provide further insights to improve conservation efforts in urban areas. It consists of 23 indicators designed to help cities monitor their progress in implementing conservation efforts and their success in halting the loss of biodiversity as formulated in the Aichi biodiversity targets of the CBD. The EO4CBI project assessed how satellite-based data, in combination with appropriate in-situ and ancillary data, can produce innovative and cost-effective solutions to the implementation of the four CBI indicators: – CBI indicator 1 on “Proportion of natural areas in city”; – CBI indicator 2 on “Connectivity measures and ecological networks to counter fragmentation”; – CBI indicator 11 on “Regulation of quantity of water”; – CBI indicator 12 on “Climate regulation: carbon storage and cooling effect of water”. The products were validated on 10 cities (Addis Ababa, Barcelona, Buenos Aires, Edmonton, Hamilton, Lisbon, Portland, Southern Luxembourg, Stockholm and Tallinn).
EO4SD – Agriculture and Rural Development EO4SD - Agriculture and Rural Development project - aims at demonstrating the benefits of EO-based geo-information products and services to support agricultural monitoring and management tasks, in particular projects and programmes of the [...]ELEAF B.V. (NL)Sustainable Developmentagriculture, sustainable developmentEO4SD – Agriculture and Rural Development project – aims at demonstrating the benefits of EO-based geo-information products and services to support agricultural monitoring and management tasks, in particular projects and programmes of the Mulatilateral Development Banks (MDBs) such as World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD and Asian Development Bank which deal with land degradation, soil erosion, food security and irrigation systems management. The main objective of this Agriculture Cluster project is to demonstrate that the effectiveness of the MDB’s technical assistance interventions and financial investments in agriculture sector can be measurably enhanced by using EO-derived information to support large-scale crop area and type estimates (i.e. crop cover mapping and status assessment), irrigation and irrigation systems management (i.e. energy balance, water productivity and water stress), agriculture productivity assessment (i.e. yield estimation, ground water, precipitation monitoring), rural infrastructure investments planning and monitoring (i.e. households and transport networks mapping), Land Degradation Assessment (i.e. land use, rainfall, soil moisture, precipitation, fAPAR, NDVI indicators), and Environmental Impact Assessment (i.e. landscape level classification and change mapping including fragmentation, and agriculture commodities production impact on deforestation).
EO4SD – Climate Resilience The ESA EO4SD Climate Resilience project encapsulates heterogeneous and multi-disciplinary knowledge to provide answer about the real potential of Earth Observation in supporting climate resilience decision making at regional and national scale, [...]GMV AEROSPACE AND DEFENCE, SA (ES)Sustainable Developmentclimate, sustainable developmentThe ESA EO4SD Climate Resilience project encapsulates heterogeneous and multi-disciplinary knowledge to provide answer about the real potential of Earth Observation in supporting climate resilience decision making at regional and national scale, and in collaboration with key Multilateral Development Banks (or MDBs). The project aims at developing an EO-based climate screening and risk management tools. The project will demonstrate the value of EO solutions with a series of use cases developed in partnership with the stakeholders (e.g. International Financing Institutions (IFIs), national hydromet agencies (NMHSs)) and innovators (e.g. citizen, entrepreneurs) to derive high-level data products supporting the monitoring of and management of climate vulnerabilities. Activities will be implemented to support selected flagship initiatives and projects implemented in Central America and Caribbean, East Africa, Central Asia and South Asia and led by the key actors in climate financing (ie. World Bank, Asian Development Bank, Interamerican Development Bank, etc.), which are interested in robust and up to date climate resilience indicators.
EO4SD – DISASTER RISK REDUCTION The ESA EO4SD Disaster Risk Reduction project aims to promote the adoption of Earth Observation-based products and services mainstreamed into the working processes of IFIs funded projects that seek to prevent or mitigate the adverse impacts of [...]INDRA SISTEMAS (ES)Sustainable Developmentdisaster risk, sustainable developmentThe ESA EO4SD Disaster Risk Reduction project aims to promote the adoption of Earth Observation-based products and services mainstreamed into the working processes of IFIs funded projects that seek to prevent or mitigate the adverse impacts of natural disasters in developing countries. Earth Observation applied to disasters is evolving quickly and has proven to be effective in all phases of the disaster risk management cycle such as prevention/ preparedness, early warning, post event recovery and reconstruction activities. The project pursues the following objectives: Carrying out demonstrations of the benefit and utility of Earth Observation (EO)-based information in support of international development projects and activities in the thematic domain of Disaster Risk Reduction (prevention, preparedness, recovery and reconstruction phases); Supporting directly programs / projects, monitoring & evaluation methodologies and policy & planning of the IFIs and their respective Client States not only in the sector of disaster management but also in transportation, habitat, energy, water and sanitation; Mainstreaming and transferring EO-based information into operational working processes of the individual countries and development organizations.
EO4SD – Eastern Partnership EO4EP – Earth Observation for Eastern Partnership is an ESA initiative which aims to achieve a step increase in the uptake of satellite-based environmental information in the development programs implemented by the World Bank and the European [...]SPACE RESEARCH CENTRE, POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (PL)Sustainable Developmentsustainable developmentEO4EP – Earth Observation for Eastern Partnership is an ESA initiative which aims to achieve a step increase in the uptake of satellite-based environmental information in the development programs implemented by the World Bank and the European Investment Bank in the Eastern European Region, in particular in order to support the technical collaboration and knowledge exchange among Eastern Partnership countries. The objective is to enhance the provision of the specialized remote sensing information services, analytic tools and geospatial information systems and to leverage new data sources such as Sentinel satellites to support planning, implementation, and monitoring of development projects as well as to provide remote sensing capacity building in three thematic areas: Agriculture, Land Management, and Water Resources Management. The project also aims to develop a portfolio of demonstration services which involve crop cultivation mapping and monitoring, assessment of water availability for crops, benchmarking against long-term data, delineation of areas currently undergoing water stress, predicting yields, providing information on land use as well as flood monitoring.
EO4SD – Marine and Coastal Resources Management The objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate a portfolio of EO based information services that can be embedded into a critical mass of investment projects funded by International Development Banks which address marine and coastal [...]NATURAL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL (GB)Sustainable Developmentcoastal zone, marine environment, sustainable developmentThe objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate a portfolio of EO based information services that can be embedded into a critical mass of investment projects funded by International Development Banks which address marine and coastal issues. The main focus will be information services addressing coastal dynamics (bathymetry, coastal erosion, sedimentation), coastal environment status (benthic and coastal habitats, coastal water quality), maritime and coastal surveillance (IUU fisheries control, pollution detection, resource extraction monitoring) and supporting the development of coastal economies (aquaculture, tourism, transport, energy). The priority geographic regions of interest are West Africa, East Africa, the Caribbean, the Northern Indian Ocean and Pacific Island States.
EO4SD – Support to States affected by Fragility, Conflict and Violence The objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate a set of EO based information services to support the activities of International Development Banks in areas affected by fragility, conflict and violence. This includes activities [...]CLS COLLECTE LOCALISATION SATELLITES (FR)Sustainable Developmentsecurity, sustainable developmentThe objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate a set of EO based information services to support the activities of International Development Banks in areas affected by fragility, conflict and violence. This includes activities addressing the causes and consequences of fragility, conflict and violence as part of an economic and social development strategy as well as support to more standard development activities which are being executed in the higher risk environment of proximity to fragility, conflict or violence. EO based information services being developed include support to natural resources management (e.g. countering illicit extraction and trafficking of minerals, fish, timber and wildlife or wildlife products), support to strengthening the application of justice and rule of law (e.g. election support, detection of crimes against humanity, onset of violence and internal displacement of persons and detection of illegal activities), support to the planning and implementation of post conflict reconstruction and support to environmental security (characterization of disease reservoirs, pollution/contamination events and the status of critical habitats and ecosystems).
EO4SD – Water Resources Management EO4SD – Earth Observation for Sustainable Development – is a new ESA initiative which aims to achieve a step increase in the uptake of satellite-based environmental information in the IFIs regional and global programs. It will follow a [...]DHI GRAS (DK)Sustainable Developmentsustainable development, water resourcesEO4SD – Earth Observation for Sustainable Development – is a new ESA initiative which aims to achieve a step increase in the uptake of satellite-based environmental information in the IFIs regional and global programs. It will follow a systematic, userdriven approach in order to meet longer-term, strategic geospatial information needs in the individual developing countries, as well as international and regional development organizations. Specifically, for water resource management the EO4SD will seek to demonstrate the benefits and utility of EO services in response to stakeholder requirements for water resources monitoring and management at local to basin scales.
EO4SD LAB: A COMMUNITY INITIATIVE FOR DEVELOPMENT AID The goal of the EO4SD-Lab project is to facilitate and promote increased use of Earth Observation (EO)-derived information by a range of users within the sustainable development community. This will be achieved by the creation and deployment of [...]CGI IT UK LIMITED (GB)Sustainable Developmentsustainable developmentThe goal of the EO4SD-Lab project is to facilitate and promote increased use of Earth Observation (EO)-derived information by a range of users within the sustainable development community. This will be achieved by the creation and deployment of an EO- processing and e-collaboration environment dedicated to Development Assistance (or Development Cooperation or Development Aid). This portal will provide users with various capabilities, ranging from searching for existing relevant factsheets and publications, undertaking analysis on various datasets, using data processing services to create new products to building and deploying their own bespoke services. Such capabilities will enable users with a varying level of EO and Geospatial knowledge to find the most relevant information.
EO4SD-Urban The EO4SD-Urban project aims at demonstrating the benefits of satellite Earth Observation-based geoinformation products to support urban planning tasks, in the context of projects and programmes of Mulatilateral Development Banks (MDBs) such as [...]GAF AG (DE)Sustainable Developmentsustainable development, urbanThe EO4SD-Urban project aims at demonstrating the benefits of satellite Earth Observation-based geoinformation products to support urban planning tasks, in the context of projects and programmes of Mulatilateral Development Banks (MDBs) such as the World Bank Group, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, etc., and stakeholders in their Client States, as well as major global development initiatives. Its major goal is to provide convincing demonstrations of the benefit and utility of user-driven EO-based information in the urban framework, based on case studies in approximately 40 cities, thereby enhancing measurably the MDB’s technical assistance interventions and financial investments in the urban sector. To progress towards the longer-term goal of estabishing EO-based information as part of the working practices of MDBs and their Client States, an important element of the project is to provide knowledge transfer via capacity building exercises on how to derive and use EO-based product in various urban development-related scenarios.
EO4URBAN, Multi-Temporal Sentinel-1 SAR and Sentinel-2 MSI Data for Global Urban Services (DUE Innovator III Series) More than half of the people on the planet live in cities and the situatiuon will further worsen with another 2.5 billion people expected to move into cities by 2050. The information decision makers need for their urban planning activities are [...]KTH ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY IN STOCKHOLM (SE)Applicationsapplications, urbanMore than half of the people on the planet live in cities and the situatiuon will further worsen with another 2.5 billion people expected to move into cities by 2050. The information decision makers need for their urban planning activities are either non-existent, outdated or collected through time-consuming field surveys or visual interpretation of areal images. Timely, reliable and consistent information on urban land cover and its changing patterns from satellite data is of critical importance to support sustainable urban development. Despite the growing importance of urban land mapping, it remains difficult to map globally and systematically urban areas, due to the heterogeneous mix of land cover types in urban environments, and to the cost of commercial airborne and satellite data. With the recent launches of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2, high resolution SAR and optical data with global coverage and free and open data policies are now available, which allow an operational and reliable global urban land mapping to become achievable. EO4URBAN developed some novel and innovative approaches for global urban services around Sentinel 1 C-SAR and Sentinel 2 MSI in support to sustainable urban development. The fusion of SAR and optical data has been proven advantageous due to the complementary nature of the data. Both SAR and optical data have their own merits and limitations, thus the fusion of SAR and optical data can overcome the deficiencies associated with single sensor approaches. The projects evaluated the added value of a joint use of Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 in urban land cover and urban extent mapping. Pilot products were developed for 10 cities around the world that represents different urban realities.
EOCYTES: Evaluation of the effect of Ozone on Crop Yields and the TErrestrial carbon pool using Satellite data Living Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Jasdeep Singh Anand.

Terrestrial ecosystems are a major carbon pool, and so act to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. However, vegetation in these carbon pools are damaged by [...]
UNIVERSITY OF LEICESTER (GB)Scienceatmosphere, biosphere, carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, land, living planet fellows, scienceLiving Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Jasdeep Singh Anand. Terrestrial ecosystems are a major carbon pool, and so act to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. However, vegetation in these carbon pools are damaged by tropospheric O3, which is formed from anthropogenic NOx and aerosol emissions. Damaged vegetation cannot sequester as much carbon, so this will lead to a degradation of carbon pools, and a worsening of climate change. In addition, O3 exposure also decreases crop yields, and therefore poses a threat to global food security. Previous investigations into O3 exposure on vegetation have relied on long-term in-situ studies using eddy covariance methods. Such investigations are costly and extremely geographically limited, and do not cover most of the tropics and emerging economies. Additionally, poorly constrained factors such as CO2 fertilisation also increase the uncertainty of derived estimates of O3-related damage. Satellite datasets from ESA and third-party missions provide long-term global monitoring of atmospheric composition and plant productivity, and could be combined with existing models of land-atmosphere processes to better constrain the rate of degradation of the terrestrial carbon pool, and to provide more useful metrics on crop losses stemming from O3 exposure. This project will analyse satellite datasets of O3, and vegetation indices as well as use the JULES land surface model to assess the extent short-term and long-term O3 exposure decreases the terrestrial carbon sink and decreases crop yields, particularly near megacities where emissions of O3 precursors are most concentrated. These results will be validated against existing in-situ datasets, such as the SoyFACE experiments, along with historical crop yield data.
EOMall The Objective of this activity is to develop an on-line Marketplace for the EO Service sector. Known as EOMall, the platform will enable the interactive promotion of downstream EO-based products & services focused on the needs of a global [...]EVERSIS SP. Z O.O. (PL)EnterpriseenterpriseThe Objective of this activity is to develop an on-line Marketplace for the EO Service sector. Known as EOMall, the platform will enable the interactive promotion of downstream EO-based products & services focused on the needs of a global user-base.
EOStat-Poland The EOStat project is co financed by EOEP5 and a Polish Industry Incentive Scheme Program (PLIIS) and aiming to facilitate the growth of strategic space applications sectors in Poland where new EO-methods methods and services integrated with [...]INSTITUTE OF GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY (PL)Enterpriseagriculture, enterpriseThe EOStat project is co financed by EOEP5 and a Polish Industry Incentive Scheme Program (PLIIS) and aiming to facilitate the growth of strategic space applications sectors in Poland where new EO-methods methods and services integrated with advanced ground segment capabilities can be developed and applied for operational use. EOStat-Agriculture Poland addresses specifically the needs of the Central Statistical Office of Poland (CSO) which is the only official national source of agricultural statistical information transmitted to the European Commission (Eurostat). In this context the objectives of this ESA-financed project is to enhance the quality and affordability of agriculture data collection and to support CSO to adopt a wide-scale use of satellite-derived information in view of the upcoming reform of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP2020).
EOVIDEO PRODUCT EXPLOITATION PLATFORM (EOVEP) Capturing video from Earth Observation (EO) is one of the most exciting innovations to hit the remote sensing world in recent times. High-resolution, full-colour EO video is enabling fundamental and disruptive changes for the Geospatial [...]Earth-i Ltd (GB)Digital Platform Servicesgeneric platform service, platformsCapturing video from Earth Observation (EO) is one of the most exciting innovations to hit the remote sensing world in recent times. High-resolution, full-colour EO video is enabling fundamental and disruptive changes for the Geospatial Intelligence and Earth Observation industries. EO Video provides several advantages over still imagery, for example: it enables faster and more accurate object recognition using AI and machine learning; It enables 3D models to be created to much higher precision than from a single stereo pair; It provides more contextual information to analysts and researchers, by capturing movement; It allows for more accurate change detection including detection of 3D changes over time; It provides the ability to mitigate patchy cloud and haze in a scene to derive a clear image. Even richer use cases emerge when one combines EO video analytics with complementary geospatial information sources to generate information products for end users. For example, video analytics related to speed and direction from a marine vessel, integrated with Automatic Identification System (AIS) data would allow tracking and course prediction for individual vessels. There are undoubtedly many applications of EO Video yet to be discovered. The EO Video Exploitation and Analytics Platform, or EOVEP, is expected to make the benefits of EO Video widely accessible to a range of users and value adders from the research, institutional and commercial sectors, enabling them to explore, experiment and discover their own applications of this novel data. The development of the EOVEP as a cloud-based platform for exploitation of video from space will be feed with high-resolution, satellite video data, not just from Earth-i’s constellation, but also from other partners offering similar data feeds. It will enable novel applications to be realised, by providing users with technology capabilities, tools and workflows for interpreting and exploiting video data and for extracting information and insights. It will also offer worked examples from Earth-i own repertoire and provide access to scientists to help EOVEP users extract value from satellite video and develop products and services relevant to their research or business needs. The platform will procure open interfaces for users of other thematic and regional platforms to query the EOVEP and retrieve information of interest to their theme; being fully integrated and connected with the ESA ecosystem and ESA Network of Resources. The success of the EOVEP platform is inherently tied to building such a community and enabling it to thrive. The combination of data and technology alone does not achieve this; equally important are fostering a culture of trust and collaboration, giving users the confidence to place their services in the platform; and providing community leadership underpinned by a clear vision for the platform, the innovation it brings, and the value it enables the community to develop and extract.
European Data Cube Facility The European Data Cube Facility service is providing fast access to a considerable amount of EO information from instrument data up to environmental variables and in order to establish a “bridge from Space to Applications”.

It capitalizes on [...]
SINERGISE LTD. (SI)Digital Platform ServicesplatformsThe European Data Cube Facility service is providing fast access to a considerable amount of EO information from instrument data up to environmental variables and in order to establish a “bridge from Space to Applications”. It capitalizes on the team experience to access EO data from the cloud (e.g. DIAS), avoiding at maximum data replication and offering users the possibility to apply their own algorithm and data transformations. The project also contributes to the interoperability activities in the related domain to maximize the service capabilities and foster federation of similar initiatives worldwide.
Federated Identity Management Pathfinders Several different activities to explore the notion of having Federated Identities for EO Exploitation, allowing a user to access services using its home organisation account, e.g. university account being used to access a DLR service or an ATOS [...]CGI IT UK LIMITED (GB)Digital Platform ServicesplatformsSeveral different activities to explore the notion of having Federated Identities for EO Exploitation, allowing a user to access services using its home organisation account, e.g. university account being used to access a DLR service or an ATOS Commercial service.
FEOSID – Further Expansion of EO Uptake Supporting International Development Bank Projects / Support for IADB The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the improved capabilities of EO data for four specific activities of the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB). These are 1) Effects of land titling in Peru; 2) Sustainable agriculture [...]TERRASIGNA (RO)Sustainable DevelopmentThe objective of this activity is to demonstrate the improved capabilities of EO data for four specific activities of the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB). These are 1) Effects of land titling in Peru; 2) Sustainable agriculture development in Guyana; 3) Monitoring of the water supply and irrigation programs in Bolivia and 4) Geospatial analysis as a tool for urban resilience in Vitória, Brazil. The project will have particular focus on the enhancements made possible by Copernicus data, an aspect that has not been addressed in the previous demonstration projects the team carried out for IADB (EOSID and EODAT projects), and which was specifically highlighted in the feedback received at the completion of those projects.
Flexible ONBoard Data Analysis The amount of data coming from imaging sensors increases steadily and a modern imaging sensor creates frames of several megapixels at a high frame acquisition rate. These imaging sensors with their large data output are mounted on spaceborne [...]Science [&] Technology Norway (NO)Enterprisepermanently open call, platformsThe amount of data coming from imaging sensors increases steadily and a modern imaging sensor creates frames of several megapixels at a high frame acquisition rate. These imaging sensors with their large data output are mounted on spaceborne platforms, but the downlink capability of these spaceborne platforms, especially for small platforms, has not been increasing at the same rate as the data generation of the imaging sensors. This has resulted in a ‘big data problem’ on board these spaceborne platforms. An industry trend towards smaller satellites – with smaller antennas, less power and worse pointing accuracy- leads to an expectation that the downlink capability will remain well below the data generation capability for such imaging satellites. In order to use more acquisitions and have a high ‘usability’ of the satellite, the on-board processing of payload data is a solution. In this project, S&T will determine and test the technology platform that is best suited for onboard intelligent processing of imaging payload data. This will include testing techniques such as development of low volume data products instead of raw image files for downlink, verifying using concrete algorithms and implementation choices how performant such processing can be, exploring the implications of moving certain parts of the processing functionality to FPGA and conducting tests using HyperSpectral imagery on a cubesat.
Food Security Thematic Exploitation Platform The main goal of this activity is to develop a Thematic Exploitation Platform (TEP) dedicated to Food Security in order to support sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and fisheries by providing access to data, processing tools and computing [...]