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4DATLANTIC EBUS PRIMUS

Plymouth Marine Laboratory (GB)

Summary

Primary productivity in upwelling systems (PRIMUS) aims to provide the best possible characterisation of net primary productivity (NPP) and its relationship to upwelling in Atlantic Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS). Funded through ESA’s Regional Initiative, PRIMUS will produce a 25-year time series of 1-km NPP in all Atlantic EBUS, and experimentally, at higher-resolution (300m) using the unique capabilities of the MERIS and OLCI sensors. These data, together with upwelling indices from different data sources, existing in-situ data, and ocean circulation modelling, will enable investigation of EBUS impacts on Earth system processes and socio-economically important activities such as: aquaculture in Galicia; fiand eutrophication in the Portuguese upwelling region; impacts on ocean carbon pools; Lagrangian estimates of NPP; and air-sea interaction and acidification impacts. Science cases will make use of EO data, in situ data as well as numerical model outputs to investigate the 4D character of EBUS, for example linking Lagrangian NPP with sediment traps samples at depth. Finally, based on the project results and wider consultations, PRIMUS will develop a scientific roadmap in the form of a peer-reviewed paper, posing scientific challenges and observations gaps that need to be addressed over the 2023 to 2027 timeframe.

Project Description

Primary productivity in upwelling systems (PRIMUS) will provide the best possible characterisation of net primary productivity (NPP) and its relationship to upwelling in Atlantic Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. We will produce a 25-year time series of 1-km NPP in all Atlantic EBUS, and experimentally, at higher-resolution (300m) using the unique capabilities of the MERIS and OLCI sensors. These data, together with upwelling indices from different data sources, existing in-situ data, and ocean circulation modelling, will address the objectives stated in the 4DAtlantic theme 1 requirements.

PRIMUS will design and implement a novel research plan that aims to describe how we plan consolidate and advance the current understanding of Atlantic EBUS, specifically addressing net primary productivity, its relation to wind-induced upwelling, its impact on Earth system processes, and effects on socio-economically important activities. This plan will include a wide-ranging consultation with relevant stakeholders and early-adopters.

PRIMUS will create or add to databases of relevant EO and in situ data that will be used in the project, notably as input for computation of NPP (as well as other elements of the carbon cycle impacted by EBUS). We will make use of a new 1-km version of the long-term climate quality ESA OC CCI dataset and leverage the unique resolution and spectral band capabilities of ESA MERIS and OLCI instruments. In-situ data will be mined from the scientific literature, existing databases, and be provided by our collaborators, notably in the regularly sampled Galician Sea component of the Iberian upwelling system, as well as other regions of interest (Portuguese coast, Canary current system and Benguela upwelling system.

PRIMUS will investigate prototype products and perform a thorough validation of the products from two existing NPP models for Atlantic EBUS. These will be evaluated using a number of criteria including accuracy (with respect to in situ data) computational efficiency (and success in simplification though an AI/ML investigation to be conducted, and appropriateness for specific regions or science applications. Evolution of the models will be based on developments from the ESA BICEP project. We will focus attention on specific developments to input variables to the models: i.e. chl-a, considering optical water type classification and sunglint-impacted data

PRIMUS will generate and validate a “4DAtlantic Experimental Dataset” of EO-based Atlantic EBUS data. These products will span over 25 years during the project, , and will make use of recently available data from Sentinel 3 for an experimental high resolution NPP product. 

PRIMUS will use these data to advance Earth System science analyses covering Atlantic EBUS temporal and spatial variability in NPP and its statistical relationship to upwelling and climate indices (such as the NAO). PRIMUS will also operate eight further science cases in specific science areas / regional settings, such as aquaculture in Galicia, or fisheries and eutrophication in the Portuguese upwelling region. In addition we will investigate: potential EBUS impacts on ocean carbon pools; Lagrangian estimates of NPP; and air-sea interaction and acidification impacts. Science cases will make use of EO data, in situ data as well as numerical model outputs (freely available through Copernicus and elsewhere) to investigate the 4D character of EBUS, for example linking Lagrangian NPP with sediment traps samples at depth. These will provide exemplars for science that can be conducted with 4D reconstructions

In order to demonstrate wider socio-economic relevance and impact, PRIMUS will conduct demonstrations that transfers science into solutions for society, working together with scientific, agency, policy and commercial early-adopters, building on three of the science case studies (concerning EBUS and aquaculture, fisheries and eutrophication monitoring); affiliating with the Future Earth Coasts initiative; evaluating transition of data production to operational initiatives such as Copernicus and GMES and Africa; and the potential for exploitation by the European and international ecosystem modelling community.

Based on the project results and wider consultations PRIMUS will develop a scientific roadmap in the form of a peer-reviewed paper, posing scientific challenges and observations gaps that need to be addressed over the 2023 to 2027 timeframe. The roadmap will focus on Atlantic EBUS, but also consider global applications of the PRIMUS results. A further aim is to collaborate on ways forward with other ESA activities (e.g. BICEP, Ocean-SODA and notably ESA Digital Twin Precursors), and other international efforts.

Finally, PRIMUS will coordinate and promote international collaboration and communicate results to scientists and citizens to maximise impact of the project through cross-cutting promotion, communication, and education activities, and through peer-reviewed publications.

In conclusion, PRIMUS aims to make a major contribution to the ESA 4DAtlantic research programme, 4D reconstructions and understanding of Atlantic EBUS net primary production in relation to upwelling and its socio-economic impacts.

The ESA Regional Initiative 4DATLANTIC-EBUS-PRIMUS Project has been kicked-off in September 2020, for a duration of 2 years.


Information

Domain
Science
Prime contractor
Plymouth Marine Laboratory (GB)
Subcontractors
  • FCiências.ID (U. Lisbon) – FC.ID (PT)
  • Instituto de Investigacións Mariñas – CSIC (ES)
  • Portuguese Institute for Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA) (PT)
  • University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria – ULPGC (ES)