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Arctic + Salinity Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is a key indicator of the freshwater fluxes and an important variable to understand the changes the Arctic is facing. However, salinity in-situ measurements are very sparse in the Arctic region. For this reason, remote [...] ARGANS LIMITED (GB) Science ocean science cluster, oceans, polar science cluster, science Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is a key indicator of the freshwater fluxes and an important variable to understand the changes the Arctic is facing. However, salinity in-situ measurements are very sparse in the Arctic region. For this reason, remote sensing salinity measurements (currently provided by L-band radiometry satellites, SMOS and SMAP) are of special relevance for this region. The retrieval of SSS in the Arctic represents a challenge, because brightness temperatures measured by L-band satellites are less sensitive to salinity in cold waters. An additional drawback consists in the presence of sea ice, that contaminates the brightness temperature and must be adequately processed. The ESA Arctic+ Salinity project (Dec 2018 – June 2020) will contribute to reduce the knowledge gap in the characterization of the freshwater flux changes in the Arctic region. The objectives of this project are the following: 1. Develop a new algorithm and novel approaches with the aim of producing the best quality validated SMOS SSS product in the Arctic region with its corresponding accuracy. Additionally, SMOS and SMAP data will be combined with the aim to improve the radiometric accuracy and the characterization of the product biases and stability. 2. Generate a long-term salinity dataset from 2011 up to date to be publicly offered to the scientific community. The products will be daily distributed with a temporal resolution of 9 days and a spatial resolution of 25Km (EASE Grid 2.0). 3. Assess the relation between the dynamics of SMOS salinity with respect to land freshwater fluxes (Greenland and glacier flows) and ocean freshwater fluxes (rivers and E-P balance) using model outputs. This has the objective to quantify the freshwater fluxes through SSS products. 4. Assess the impact of the new SSS satellite data in a data assimilation system (the TOPAZ4 system, both in forecast and reanalysis mode) with the idea that, if an improvement is demonstrated, the assimilation of SMOS & SMAP products in TOPAZ will be part of the new Arctic reanalysis and forecast products on the CMEMS portal. 5. Define a roadmap describing the future work to better characterize the freshwater fluxes for the Arctic regions. The output of this project will be of great benefit for the on-going ESA Sea Surface Salinity Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project, which started in February 2018. The outputs of the project will be: 1. The distribution to the scientific community of the best-up-to-date sea surface salinity maps from SMOS and from the combination of SMOS and SMAP with their corresponding uncertainties. 2. Explore the feasibility and utility of assimilating the surface salinity maps product in the TOPAZ4 model. The potential problem the project face is the sparse in-situ data availability in the area which is needed for a complete validation assessment. Other potential problems are the sea ice edge that has a direct effect in the brightness temperature and the RFI contamination. But several solutions have already been identified.
ARKTALAS HOAVVA PROJECT The multi-disciplinary, long-term, satellite-based Earth Observations (EO) form a tremendous synergy of data and information products that should to be more systematically and consistently explored, from the short synoptic time scales to the [...] NANSEN ENVIRONMENTAL AND REMOTE SENSING CENTER (NO) Science cryosphere, ocean science cluster, oceans, polar science cluster, science The multi-disciplinary, long-term, satellite-based Earth Observations (EO) form a tremendous synergy of data and information products that should to be more systematically and consistently explored, from the short synoptic time scales to the longer decadal time scales. This lays the rationale for the ESA funded Arktalas Hoavva study project. A stepwise multi-modal analyses framework approach benefitting from native resolution satellite observations together with complementary in-situ data, model fields, analyses and visualization system and data assimilation tools will be applied.  Following this approach, the overall goal is to remove knowledge gaps and advance the insight and quantitative understanding of sea ice, ocean and atmosphere interactive processes and their mutual feedback across a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. In turn, four major existing interlinked Arctic Scientific research Challenges (ASC) will be investigated, including: ASC-1: Characterize Arctic Amplification and its impact (ASC-1) Central elements (not exclusive) are: – reduction in sea ice extent and concentration; – changes in albedo; – changes in the radiation balance; – increased air temperature; – delayed onset of sea ice freezing; – early onset of sea ice melting; – increasing area of melt ponds and polynias; – increased lead fraction; – changes in snow cover and SWE; – changes in ocean-atmosphere momentum, heat exchange and gas exchanges; – reduction in fast ice area; – thinning of sea ice thickness; – changes in optical conditions in the upper ocean with influence on the biology and marine ecosystem; – more favourable conditions for sea ice drift; – more meltwater; – larger fetch; – enhanced wave-sea ice interaction; – more wave induced sea ice break-up; – modifications to atmospheric boundary layer and changes in weather pattern; – influence on Arctic vortex and hence teleconnection to mid-latitudes. ASC-2: Characterize the impact of more persistent and larger area open water on sea ice dynamics  Building on ASC-1,  this is associated with: – increasing momentum transfer to the upper ocean leading to more turbulent mixing and possibly entrainment of warm Atlantic Water below the halocline; – increasing Ekman effects; – changes in sea ice growth, salt rejection and halocline formation; – larger fetch and lower frequency waves penetrating further into the ice covered regions leading to more floe-break-up; – increasing lead fraction and more sea ice melting; – reduction in sea ice flow size, age,  thicknesses and extent and subsequent change in sea ice mechanical behaviour; – possibly more abundance of internal waves and mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies generated in the open ocean with subsequent abilities to propagate into the ice covered regions leading to changes in sea ice deformation and dynamics. ASC-3: Understand, characterize and predict the impact of extreme event storms in sea-ice formation Growing areas of open water within the Arctic Ocean and the neighbouring seas will be more effectively exposed to extreme events. Cold air outbreak and polar lows, for instance, are known to have strong impact in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ), including; – enhanced momentum transfer and vertical mixing; – enhanced sea ice formation; – enhanced formation of unstable stratification in the atmospheric boundary layer; – more low cloud formations changing the radiation balance; – set up abnormal wave field to strengthen wave induced sea ice break-up; – abnormal impact on the pycnocline and subsequent entrainment of heat into the upper mixed. A central question is eventually whether the Arctic amplification will trigger increasing frequency of occurrences and strength of extremes. ASC-4: Understand, characterize and predict the Arctic ocean spin-up The ongoing Arctic amplification and subsequent changes, mutual interactions and feedback mechanisms are also expected to influence the basin scale atmospheric and ocean circulation within the Arctic Ocean.  In particular, this will address: – freshwater distribution and transport; – importance of Ekman pumping; – changes in water mass properties; – changes in upper ocean stratification and mixing; – changes in sub-surface heat exchange; – possibly more abundance of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies and internal waves generated in the open ocean with subsequent abilities to propagate into the sea ice covered regions. The Arktalas Hoavva project kicked-off 9 July 2019 and will be executed over a 24 months period through the following seven interconnected tasks with mutual input-output feeds as schematically illustrated in the figure below. One of the major outcomes of the project is six dedicated research papers emerging from Task 3 that are specifically addressing the Arctic Scientific Challenges. These papers will be published in peer review journals. Moreover, the project will develop a visualization portal in polar-stereographic configuration that will be connected to the Arktalas data archive and allow users to access and make use of the Arktalas satellite-based, in-situ and model-based dataset during the project.
Atlantic Meridional Transect Ocean Flux from satellite campaign (AMT4OceanSatFlux) This project estimates of the air-sea flux of CO2 calculated from a suite of satellite products over a range of Atlantic Ocean provinces. It deploys state-of-the-art eddy co-variance methods to provide independent verification of satellite [...] UK RESEARCH AND INNOVATION (GB) Science ocean science cluster, oceans, science This project estimates of the air-sea flux of CO2 calculated from a suite of satellite products over a range of Atlantic Ocean provinces. It deploys state-of-the-art eddy co-variance methods to provide independent verification of satellite estimates of CO2 gas exchange over the Atlantic Ocean. The project provides Fiducial Reference Measurements from the AMT28 field campaign (from 23rd September to 29th October 2018) to enable independent verification and validation of the satellite CO2 air-sea flux estimates both at point scales and on scales that relate to satellite data over a range of oceanographic conditions. Global algorithms that are being used to study ocean acidification from using satellite data are also being evaluated and refined within the project, using high spatio-temporal resolution underway measurements made on AMT28 field campaign.
BALTIC+ Sea-Land biogeochemical linkages (SeaLaBio) The overall goal of the ESA funded project Baltic+ SeaLaBio (Sea-Land Biogeochemical linkages) running from Dec 2018 to May 2020 is to develop methods for assessing carbon dynamics and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea through integrated use of [...] FINNISH ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE (SYKE) (FI) Science baltic, carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, land, ocean science cluster, oceans, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3 The overall goal of the ESA funded project Baltic+ SeaLaBio (Sea-Land Biogeochemical linkages) running from Dec 2018 to May 2020 is to develop methods for assessing carbon dynamics and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea through integrated use of EO, models, and ground-based data The poor state of the Baltic Sea again became apparent during summer 2018 in form of massive and long-lasting cyanobacteria blooms. Warm and sunny weather, combined with good availability of nutrients led to the worst algae situation in a decade. Climate change is expected to cause further warming in this region making these events more and more common in the future. The decades of dumping untreated waste water into the Baltic Sea and the use of fertilizers in agriculture have resulted in strong internal loading. While the water treatment situation has improved and fertilizers are being used more responsibly, the flux of carbon and nutrients from land to sea is still great and in many areas largely unknown. The Sentinel satellites of the Copernicus programme offer an excellent opportunity for characterizing and monitoring the fluxes and processes occurring in coastal zones. This in turn will lead to improved process understanding. With this in mind, the Baltic+ SeaLaBio research project aims to find an answer to the question: • Can we quantify the carbon flux from land to sea with Sentinel-3 (S3) OLCI and Sentinel-2 (S2) MSI data in the Baltic Sea region? And if not, what are the main obstacles and potential solutions to be addressed in the future? In addition to frequent cyanobacteria blooms, the high absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) causes problems to the utilization of EO for monitoring the state of the Baltic Sea. The available processors for S3 and S2 often provide overestimated values for Chlorophyll a and underestimate CDOM. The main source of these problems is the failure of the atmospheric correction to provide reasonable marine reflectances. Thus, the project focuses especially on improving the atmospheric correction and in-water inversion algorithms for S3 and S2 images. The developed methods will be validated with in situ data collected from different parts of the Baltic Sea. We will also improve the spatial resolution of a biogeochemical (BGC) model (Ecological ReGional Ocean Model, ERGOM) and compare its output against the EO results. S3 OLCI has a better band combination for water quality estimation than S2 but its spatial resolution limits its use in river estuaries and archipelagos common in the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. Hence, the synergistic use of these two data sources can lead to improved coverage in coastal regions without compromising the thematic quality of the data. The project will actively disseminate its progress and results in various Baltic Sea and EO events.
BICEP (Biological Pump and Carbon Exchange Processes) The ocean carbon cycle is a vital part of the global carbon cycle. It has been estimated that around a quarter of anthropogenically-produced emissions of CO2, caused from the burning of fossil fuels and land use change, have been absorbed by the [...] PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY (GB) Science carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, ocean science cluster, oceans, permanently open call, science The ocean carbon cycle is a vital part of the global carbon cycle. It has been estimated that around a quarter of anthropogenically-produced emissions of CO2, caused from the burning of fossil fuels and land use change, have been absorbed by the ocean. On the other hand, significant advances have been made recently to expand and enhance the quality of a wide range of Remote Sensing based products capturing different aspects of the ocean carbon cycle. Building on recommendations made in a series of recent meetings and reports, on ESA lead initiatives and projects and on other relevant international programmes, the objective of the BICEP project is to bring these developments together into an holistic exercise to further advance our capacity to better characterise from a synergetic use of space data, in-situ measurements and model outputs, the different components of the ocean biological carbon pump, its pools and fluxes, its variability in space and time and the understanding of its processes and interactions with the earth system. To achieve this goal, the BICEP project will first synthesise the current state of knowledge in the field and produce a consolidated set of scientific requirements that define the products to be generated, as well as how these products will be evaluated and used to produce an enhanced BICEP dataset. Major emphasis will be placed on developing unified products to ensure that the carbon budgets made are in balance. Uncertainties in the derived products will also be quantified. A large in situ dataset of ocean carbon pools and fluxes will be created, to be used to evaluate and select the algorithms, with a focus on five key test sites, representative of the range of conditions in the global ocean. Using these selected algorithms, a 20-year time series of data will be generated, built through application of the selected algorithms to the ESA OC-CCI time series, a merged, bias-corrected ocean-colour data record explicitly designed for long-term analysis. The dataset will be used as input to a novel, satellite-based characterisation of the ocean biological carbon pump, quantifying the pools and fluxes, how they vary in time and space, and how they compare with ocean model estimates. The satellite-based Ocean Biological Cabon Pump analysis will then be placed in the context of carbon cycling in other domains of the Earth System, through engagement with Earth System modellers and climate scientists. Finally, a workshop will be organized, to be used as a vehicle to engage the international community in a discussion on how the BICEP work could be pushed forward, and integrated with results from other components of the ocean carbon cycle (e.g. CO2 air-flux and ocean acidification) not covered in the project, and how the representation of satellite-based ocean carbon work could be further improved in the context of large international Earth System analysis, such as the Global Carbon Project and assessments made within the International Panel of Climate Change (IPCC). The proposed work will be delivered by a consortium of twelve international Institutes, led by the Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML, Plymouth, UK) and composed of top-level scientists, with collective expertise on Remote Sensing, statistical modelling, ocean carbon cycling, theoretical ecology and Earth System science.
CryoSat Plus For Oceans (CP4O) The “CryoSat Plus for Oceans” (CP4O) project, supported by the ESA Support to Science Element (STSE) Programme and by CNES, was dedicated to the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data over the open and coastal ocean. The general objectives of the CP4O [...] SATELLITE OCEANOGRAPHIC CONSULTANTS LTD. (GB) Science altimeter, coastal zone, oceans, polar science cluster, SAR, SARin, science The “CryoSat Plus for Oceans” (CP4O) project, supported by the ESA Support to Science Element (STSE) Programme and by CNES, was dedicated to the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data over the open and coastal ocean. The general objectives of the CP4O project were: To build a sound scientific basis for new oceanographic applications of CryoSat­-2 data; to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the CryoSat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and to ensure that the scientific return of the CryoSat-­2 mission is maximised. However, whilst the results from CP4O were highly promising and confirmed the potential of SAR altimetry to support new scientific and operational oceanographic applications, it was also apparent that further work was needed in some key areas to fully realise the original project objectives. Thus, after the end of the Project in 2015,  additional work in four areas has been supported by ESA under a first Contract Change Notice (CCN): Developments in SARin data processing for Coastal Altimetry. Implementation of a Regional Tidal Atlas for the Arctic Ocean. Improvements to the SAMOSA retracker: Implementation and Evaluation & Optimised Thermal Noise Estimation. Extended evaluation of CryoSat­-2 SAR data for Coastal Applications. This CCN ended in 2016 and was followed by a second Contract Change Notice, currently on-going, on the improvement of the arctic ocean bathymetry and regional tidal atlas. A detailed description of the specific objectives under each of the four sub-themes (Open Ocean Altimetry, Polar Ocean Altimetry, Coastal Zone Altimetry & Sea-Floor Altimetry) can be found at http://www.satoc.eu/projects/CP4O/
CryoSat-2 for enhanced sea-ice thickness and ocean observations in Antarctica: “CryoSat+ Antarctic Ocean” Why has Antarctic sea ice experienced a small increase in extent over the past decades in stark contrast to the rapid decline observed in the Arctic? What role are the Southern Ocean and sea ice playing in controlling the Deep Water formation [...] MULLARD SPACE SCIENCE LABORATORY – UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON (GB) Science Antarctica, oceans, polar science cluster, science, snow and ice Why has Antarctic sea ice experienced a small increase in extent over the past decades in stark contrast to the rapid decline observed in the Arctic? What role are the Southern Ocean and sea ice playing in controlling the Deep Water formation and thermohaline circulation and the melting of the Antarctic ice shelves and sea level rise? Only satellite remote sensing can provide the pan-Antarctic view required to fully understand these changes to the Southern Hemisphere’s sea ice and ocean fields in response to anthropogenic warming. Over the last 8 years CryoSat-2 (CS2) has allowed a radically new view of the ice covered Arctic Ocean, providing us with the first pan-Arctic sea ice thickness maps, dynamic topography and geostrophic currents, and indirectly a wealth of geophysical products ranging from Eddy kinetic energy (EKE), Ekman upwelling / downwelling, to snow on sea ice, and improved tidal models, or better resolved bathymetry at the bottom ocean. In Antarctica similar products have emerged but remain at a lower level of maturity. Specific challenges in the processing of the radar signal result from the complex surface characteristics of the ice covered Southern Ocean such as the sea ice flooding from snow loading or the highly fragmented and divergent marginal ice zone like nature of the sea ice cover. In addition, validation of sea ice and ocean products is hindered by the observational gap of in-situ and airborne data in the Southern Hemisphere. The overarching objective of this project is to address these issues by developing new approaches and algorithms that could be implemented in ESA’s CryoSat-2 ground segment processor to produce state of the art sea ice and ocean products that will be validated against a comprehensive dataset of airborne and in-situ measurements and result in scientific progress for our understanding of the Antarctic Climate system and ocean circulation. The main objectives of this project are: Perform a thorough review of the scientific and technical challenges Survey, collect and document all relevant data sets needed for the successful development of novel, observational and model-based snow thickness products. Develop, inter-compare and validate multiple approaches to sea surface height and sea ice thickness retrieval on Antarctic sea ice. Specific approaches to be considered are: Novel LRM/SAR/SARIN methods for leads, polynyas, open ocean and sea ice classification Along-track processors over leads, polynyas and open ocean for sea surface estimation Along-track processors over sea ice floes for sea ice thickness estimation Pan-Antarctic gridded products of dynamic ocean topography and geostrophic currents Pan-Antarctic gridded products of sea ice thickness Preliminary inter-comparison of along-track and gridded products developed in steps b-e Validation over selected tracks and key regions against in-situ and airborne data. Implement the algorithms developed above and assess their impact and usefulness in addressing the identified scientific challenges. Build a scientific roadmap for future development and evolution of knowledge about the snow layer on Arctic sea ice. The main outputs of the project will be: An Experimental Dataset and accompanying User Manual Algorithm description documents Validation reports An Impact Assessment A scientific Roadmap The biggest challenges the project faces are the difficulties in validating data products against sparse or preferentially sampled, in-situ data, and in proving that a new method is measurably better than an existing method when applied to inherently noisy data.
CYMS (Scaling-up Cyclone Monitoring Service with Sentinel-1) Tropical Cyclone (TC) observations over the global ocean are a key component in extreme events monitoring and in anticipating appropriate risk mitigation and emergency response at landfall. In particular, the Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP) of [...] CLS COLLECTE LOCALISATION SATELLITES (FR) Science ocean science cluster, oceans, permanently open call, science, Sentinel-1, SMOS Tropical Cyclone (TC) observations over the global ocean are a key component in extreme events monitoring and in anticipating appropriate risk mitigation and emergency response at landfall. In particular, the Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), allows tropical cyclone forecasters to access various sources that provide conventional and specialized data/products, including those from Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) and remote sensing observations, as well as forecasting tools on the development, motion, intensification and wind distribution of tropical cyclones. The operational delivery of high-resolution TC observations from SAR will significantly help the tropical cyclone forecasters of the six tropical cyclone Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) and the six Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) having regional responsibility to provide advisories and bulletins with up-to-date first level basic meteorological information on all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, typhoons everywhere in the world. Moreover, the unique ability of SAR systems to probe high resolution observations of the sea surface from space coupled with a strategy to maximize the acquisitions over TC will allow to start building a new database for science applications. The first demonstration of the Copernicus Sentinel-1 SAR capabilities was first triggered in 2016 under the SHOC campaigns of the ESA SEOM R&D program. The combination of high resolution and wide swath observations at C-band together with dual-polarization capability offers a unique opportunity to characterize the inner core storm structures. The late programming of S-1 acquisitions by ESA and the high quality of SHOC products has successfully illustrated the potentials of S-1 constellation mission to be part of a dedicated multi-missions hurricane observation strategy, including other sensors such as radiometers (SMOS, SMAP), and third party SAR missions (Radarsat-2, ALOS-2…). Since then, IFREMER and CLS together with ESA/ESRIN have continuously monitored hurricane with S-1 sensors on a best effort basis, while engaging an increasing number of potential end-users and stakeholders and starting several studies for science applications based on this dataset. The main objective of this proposed project is to scale up this operational service (hereafter called CYMS –CYclone Monitoring service with S-1), in view of its potential integration as part of a Copernicus Service. The service shall provide validated and fully acknowledged products, be consistent, standardized, interoperable and harmonized across international institutions and bodies supporting European policies and the international charter of risk management. The service includes not only NRT operational wind field products, but also an archive center ensuring a continual improvement cycle and full data uptake by stakeholders.
Earth Observation data For Science and Innovation in the Black Sea (EO4SIBS) In the frame of the ESA Regional Initiatives, a set of coordinated activities between science, public sector, industry growth and infrastructure components focussing on regional priorities with high interest for Member States, a number of [...] UNIVERSITY OF LIEGE (BE) Science carbon science cluster, ocean science cluster, oceans, regional initiatives, science, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3 In the frame of the ESA Regional Initiatives, a set of coordinated activities between science, public sector, industry growth and infrastructure components focussing on regional priorities with high interest for Member States, a number of Science and Application projects are being runned for the Black Sea and Danube region. In this context, the EO4SIBS (Earth Observation data For Science and Innovation in the Black Sea) project is dedicated to Ocean Science. The objectives of this project are: To develop a new generation of algorithms that can ingest the wealth of spatial, temporal and spectral information provided by recent sensors providing high quality reference products for the blue and green ocean. In particular, regarding Ocean Colour derived products, innovative, high quality reference products of Chl-a, Total Suspended Matter (TSM) and turbidity products will be generated for the whole Black Sea geographical area, with a special focus on the western part directly influenced by the Danube River plume. Merged products will be generated to combine the high temporal resolution of S-3 OLCI and high spatial resolution of S-2 MSI satellite products and capture the optimal spatio-temporal coverage over the Black Sea waters. Concerning altimeter datasets, Level-3 Sentinel-3A [2016, 2018] and Cryosat-2 [2011, 2018] along-track product will be generated and their impact for coastal sea level trend study in the Black Sea assessed, and Level-4 multi-mission gridded products over the [2011, 2018] for improved mesoscale studies. Finally, 10 year (2010-2020) of improved gap-free high resolution salinity products will be generated. To collect new data to support the development of novel algorithms and to propose laboratory analyses of the highest quality To build novel composite products that integrate the satellite information with that from robotic platforms and numerical ocean models; To assess how the use of EO data improves our knowledge of good environmental status (GES) and climate change in the Black Sea. In particular three scientific use cases will be assessed : Physical oceanography and biochemical ecosystems; Black Sea level dynamics and trends; Deoxygenation. To disseminate the developed tools and products to the regional and international scientific and end-user community through the setting of a web platform, the organization of dissemination events, the participation to conferences.
Earth System Data Lab (ESDL) The main objective of the Earth System Data Lab (ESDL) project is to establish and operate a service to the scientific community that greatly facilitates access and exploitation of the multivariate data set in the ESDL and by this means advances [...] BROCKMANN CONSULT GMBH (DE) Science land, marine environment, oceans, platforms, science The main objective of the Earth System Data Lab (ESDL) project is to establish and operate a service to the scientific community that greatly facilitates access and exploitation of the multivariate data set in the ESDL and by this means advances the understanding of the interactions between the ocean-land-atmosphere system and society. To this end, the main tasks of the project fall into four main categories: infrastructure and operations, data sets and tools, use cases and scientific exploitation, and communication and outreach. The core part of the ESDL is the data in analysis-ready form, together with tools and methods to generate, access, and exploit the ESDL. The software to generate the ESDL and the data access APIs have been developed in the preceding project CAB-LAB. The modular open source approach adopted in CAB-LAB has proven to be convenient, flexible, and powerful and effectively meets user requirements. ESDL further evolves the range of available tools according to the requirements formulated by the different user groups of the service, while users may also contribute their own solutions and share them with others on github. The project continuously extends the datasets included in the ESDL. The additions imply both extending the data coverage in time as well as the introduction of completely new data sets.  Examples for specific requirements include marine parameters and the missing parameters from ESA’s CCI programme, e.g. Land Cover, Clouds, Aerosols, and Green House Gases. As for the software part, the main objective for these additions is to increase the ESDL’s utility and versatility and thus ultimately the uptake of scientific users, who will then have a powerful tool to advance our understanding of the Earth system dynamics. User uptake and scientific exploitation through the implementation of use cases is actively promoted by several tasks. The project adopts a three-stage approach and accordingly defines three different user types, Champion Users (CU, pre-defined use cases), Early Adopters (EA, Open call), and the Scientific Community (SC, free use). All ESDL users have in common that they are using the ESDL for scientific exploitation. While doing so, they are helping to improve the ESDL and the service provided, to increase the awareness for this activity and the offered service, and to extend the ESDL by contributing own source code and data sets. The ESDL is complemented by extensive outreach, communication, and training activites, which will foster user uptake, empower users to optimally exploit the ESDL, and eventually yield tangible scientific results in the form of peer-reviewed articles in international journals. Champion Use Cases: Four Champion use cases will be implemented in collaboration with distinguished experts  to demonstrate the wide range of different approaches that may be adopted with the ESDL: EM-DAT: Environmental conditions during societal catastrophes GEO-BON Colombia: Supporting regional initiatives in Colombia towards an Ecological Observation System Marine NPP: Primary productivity models in the ocean MDI: Biogeochemical Model Optimization Results: The Data Lab is accessible via registration https://www.earthsystemdatalab.net/index.php/interact/data-lab/ User Guide and Source code for Python and Julia https://www.earthsystemdatalab.net/index.php/documentation/user-guide/
EO tracking of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea from public satellites One of the most significant unknown factors in marine debris is the flux of plastic from land based sources into the marine environment. This project is testing techniques to combine EO and UAV data to detect different types and volumes of [...] ARGANS LIMITED (GB) Enterprise oceans, permanently open call One of the most significant unknown factors in marine debris is the flux of plastic from land based sources into the marine environment. This project is testing techniques to combine EO and UAV data to detect different types and volumes of plastic in order to establish a methodology to characterize this flux in hotspot areas which are the main sources of plastic.
GOCE++Dynamic Topography at the Coast and Tide Gauge Unification (DYCOT) The objective of this activity is a consolidated and improved understanding and modelling of coastal processes and physics responsible for sea level changes on various temporal/spatial scales. In practice, this study shall combine several [...] TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DENMARK (DK) Science oceans, science The objective of this activity is a consolidated and improved understanding and modelling of coastal processes and physics responsible for sea level changes on various temporal/spatial scales. In practice, this study shall combine several elements: Propose and develop an approach to estimate a consistent DT at tide gauges, coastal areas, and open ocean Validate the approach in well-surveyed areas where DT can be determined at tide gauges Determine a consistent MDT using GOCE with consistent error covariance fields Connect measurements of a global set of tide gauges and investigate trends Develop and outlook how the approach could be further improved using improved coastal altimetry.
GODAE OCEAN OBSERVING SYSTEM EVALUATION OF SATELLITE SEA SURFACE SALINITY AND EL NINO 2015 (SMOS-NINO15) SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is not yet widely used by the ocean modelling community. In part this is due to the technical challenges of assimilating satellite SSS and assessing the impact of the assimilation using objective tools and [...] CLS COLLECTE LOCALISATION SATELLITES (FR) Science oceans, science, SMOS SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is not yet widely used by the ocean modelling community. In part this is due to the technical challenges of assimilating satellite SSS and assessing the impact of the assimilation using objective tools and reporting. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) Ocean View Science Team (GOV-ST) group Observing System Evaluation Task Team (OSEVal-TT, see https://www.godae-oceanview.org/science/task-teams/observing-system-evaluation-tt-oseval-tt/) was convened by GOV-ST to evaluate the impact of different measurement systems by running specific observing system experiments and producing an Observation Impact Statement Report. This allows GOV-ST to formulate specific requirements for ocean observations on the basis of improved understanding of data utility.This activity is focussed on the design, implementation and reporting of an Observing System Evaluation of satellite SSS during the strong El Nino 2015/16 event. Strong SSS signals are present in SMOS data prior and during to the El Nino event. Inaddition to SMOS, full use of the NASA SMAP mission data will be encouraged. The output will be a GOV-ST Observation Impact Statement Report focussed on satellite SSS, journal publications and a workshop dedicated to the findings and approach taken by the study team.
Ocean CIRculation from ocean COLour observations (CIRCOL) The monitoring of the oceanic surface currents is a major scientific and socio-economic challenge. Ocean currents represent one of the fundamental elements that modulate natural and anthropogenic processes at several different space and time [...] CNR-INSTITUTE OF MARINE SCIENCES-ISMAR (IT) Science climate change, ocean science cluster, oceans, permanently open call, science The monitoring of the oceanic surface currents is a major scientific and socio-economic challenge. Ocean currents represent one of the fundamental elements that modulate natural and anthropogenic processes at several different space and time scales, from global climate change to local dispersal of tracers and pollutants, with relevant impacts on marine ecosystem services and maritime activities (e.g. optimization of the ship routes, maritime safety, coastal protection). An appropriate monitoring of the oceanic currents must rely on high frequency and high resolution observations of the global ocean, which are achieved using satellite measurements. At present, no satellite sensor is able to provide a direct measurement of the ocean currents – The indirect and synoptic retrieval of the large-scale geostrophic component of the sea-surface motion is given by satellite altimetry at a spatial (~100km) and temporal (~one week) resolution which is not sufficient for many applications, even more in semi-enclosed basins as the Mediterranean Sea where the most energetic variable signals are found at relatively small scales. In this context, the objective of the CIRCOL (Ocean Circulation from Ocean Colour Observations) project is to improve the retrieval of altimeter-derived currents in the Mediterranean Basin combining the largescale, altimeter-derived geostrophic currents with the high-resolution dynamical information contained in sequences of satellite-derived surface Chlorophyll (Chl) observations. The project will be implemented in two phases. During Phase 1, an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) based on CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) physical and biogeochemical models will be implemented to investigate the potentialities of the proposed approach for the improvement of the altimeter derived currents. During Phase 2, the optimal Chl-based reconstruction of the sea-surface currents will be implemented using the satellite-derived multi-sensor, L4 (gap-free) altimeter and sea-surface Chl for the Mediterranean Sea distributed by CMEMS. The resulting products will be validated against in-situ velocity measurements (drifting buoys, HF radar).  
Ocean Virtual Laboratory The aimof this activity is To exploit the synergy between Sentinel instruments and other mission EO datasets together with in situ measurements in complex waters and improve scientific understanding of ocean and coastal processes and impacts.The [...] OCEANDATALAB (FR) Science altimeter, carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, CryoSat, oceans, platforms, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3 The aimof this activity is To exploit the synergy between Sentinel instruments and other mission EO datasets together with in situ measurements in complex waters and improve scientific understanding of ocean and coastal processes and impacts.The main objective of the project is to develop a virtual plateform to allow oceanographers to discover the existence and then to handle jointly, in a convenient, flexible and intuitive way, the various co-located EO datasets and related model/in-situ datasets over dedicated regions of interest with a different multifacet point of view. This is first demonstrated over the Agulhas region. Developed tools shall foster the emergence of new methods prototype and products making use of the complementarity between sensors to study ocean related processes. The tool shall also provide the best possible visibility on the upcoming Sentinel1/2/3 datatakes to help plan and coordinate with field campaign. The OVL is filling the gap between Space agencies data portals that distributes specific EO data and analysis software like IDL/ENVI or Matlab that are more suitable for in-depth analysis of a given dataset. A few GIS systems such as Google Earth are able to import several data layers but very little interaction with data (apart for basic layer transparency) is possible. The project scientific committee has to ensure that the developed OVL is providing significant added value and is not duplicating existing efforts in the international community. Scientists in the consortium shall ensure that OVL is built for scientists and with a large beta-tester community and response effectiveness to satisfy most needs of a rather versatile community.
OVALIE: Oceanic intrinsic Variability versus Atmospheric forced variabiLIty of sea level changE Living Planet Fellowship research project carried out by William Llovel.

Global mean sea level rise is one of the most direct consequences of actual global warming. Since the beginning of the 20th century, global mean sea level experiences an [...]
CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE (CNRS) (FR) Science living planet fellows, ocean science cluster, oceans, science Living Planet Fellowship research project carried out by William Llovel. Global mean sea level rise is one of the most direct consequences of actual global warming. Since the beginning of the 20th century, global mean sea level experiences an unabated increase of 1.1-1.9 mm.yr-1 recorded by tide gauges. Based on satellite altimetry and since 1993, global mean sea level rises at a higher rate of 3 mm.yr-1. This higher rate denotes a possible acceleration in this global rise. Actual global mean sea level rise mainly reflects global ocean warming (through thermal expansion of sea water) and land ice melt (from Greenland, Antarctica and mountain glaciers). Monitoring precisely these climate variables is mandatory to better understand processes at work under current global warming and to validate climate models used for projections. Careful investigations of these observations jointly with state-of-the-art numerical simulations have also helped for interpreting these changes and underlying mechanisms. Some of these joint observational/numerical investigations have demonstrated that the evolution of the ocean in the turbulent regions has a stochastic character even over interannual to multidecadal periods. This stochastic character of the ocean is known as intrinsic variability. This latter is poorly known in the global ocean despite its recently acknowledged contribution to the oceanic variability. Thus, this intrinsic variability may bias our interpretation of low-frequency variability of the ocean. One barely knows the temporal and spatial signature of the intrinsic variability, the precise footprints of this intrinsic variability as a function of depth and its signature on observations. Furthermore, we do not have enough knowledge on how this intrinsic variability contributes to the recent regional sea level change and its contributions such as temperature, salinity and mass changes. Therefore, the atmospheric evolution may force a variety of long-term oceanic variability. This means that the most accurate satellite/in situ observations can describe the atmospheric forced variability along with the chaotic ocean intrinsic changes. The OVALIE project proposes to scientifically investigate and partition the respective contribution of the atmospheric forced variability versus the oceanic intrinsic variability for the sea level observations (satellite data -based on Topex/Poseidon, Jason 1-2-3, ERS1, ERS2, ENVISAT, Altika and GRACE- and in situ measurements –based on Argo floats and other in situ measurements).
PHYSIOGLOB: Assessing the inter-annual physiological response of phytoplankton to global warming using long-term satellite observations Living Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Marco Bellacicco.
Phytoplankton is considered to be responsible for approximately 50% of the planetary primary production and is at the basis of the trophic chain. Large scale factors [...]
ITALIAN NATIONAL AGENCY FOR NEW TECHNOLOGIES, ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (ENEA) (IT) Science carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, climate change, living planet fellows, ocean science cluster, oceans, science Living Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Marco Bellacicco. Phytoplankton is considered to be responsible for approximately 50% of the planetary primary production and is at the basis of the trophic chain. Large scale factors such as climate, ocean circulation, and mostly anthropogenic activities, affect phytoplankton biomass and distribution. For all of these reasons, in the ocean, phytoplankton is defined as a sort of sentinel of changes in the ecosystem, because they rapidly respond to environment perturbations. Light, nutrients and temperature are the most important environmental variables that influence phytoplankton production. Phytoplankton cells respond to changes in light and nutrients with physiological strategies that enhance the efficiency of light capturing, photosynthetic capacity, growth and persistence. There are two different kinds of phytoplankton responses to light: photoadaptation and photoacclimation. The photoadaptation describes changes that might happen at genotype level, and are expected to occur at a long evolutionary time-scale. The photoacclimation is a cellular process that allows phytoplankton to change the intracellular chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl) in relation to environmental factors and it includes, among the others, regulation of the pigment amount and other components of the photosynthetic machinery. The temperature is the other main environmental agent that affects phytoplankton. It has been proved that ocean warming, mostly due to anthropogenic activities, causes an expansion of the low-Chl and low-productivity areas impacting strongly on marine ecosystem.  The most important and easily observable mechanism due to photoacclimation is variation of the photosynthetic pigment concentration (i.e. Chl) at the cellular scale which is thus can be observed and quantified using space-borne observations. Photoacclimation can be described in terms of variation of the ratio between chlorophyll-a and carbon (Chl:C ratio). Unfortunately, this process is currently overlooked by standard operational ocean colour algorithms used to retrieve information about both the phytoplankton standing stock and production. PhysioGlob wants to study the inter-annual physiological response of phytoplankton to global warming using long-term satellite observations (i.e. entire ESA OC-CCI time-series) through the Chl:C ratio. Phytoplankton carbon could be estimated from the particle backscattering (bbp, λ). One of the most used and applied algorithm for bbp (λ) is the Quasi Analytical Algorithm (QAA). We want to re-evaluate retrieval of bbp (λ) over the global ocean with the QAA, using field data of remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and inherent optical properties (IOP), and then compare phytoplankton carbon with Chl to estimate the physiological signal. In order to study the trend and oscillation of this process we: i) study the single time series in separate M-SSA analyses to evaluate similarities among the inter-annual variabilities of the Chl:Cphyto ratio, SST, and phytoplankton indices also highlighting possible differences; ii) proceed with a joint M-SSA analysis of the time series to better understand the spatio-temporal structure associated with inter-annual variability in the Chl:Cphyto ratio or phytoplankton indices and global ocean temperature field. This coupled analysis will also help in addressing the question to which extent the inter-annual oscillatory modes found in the Chl:Cphyto ratio or phytoplankton indices can be attributed to its response to inter-annual variability in SST field.
SAR Altimetry Coastal & Open Ocean Performance (SCOOP) SCOOP (SAR Altimetry Coastal & Open Ocean Performance) is a project funded under the ESA SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) Programme Element, started in September 2015, to characterise the expected performance of [...] SATELLITE OCEANOGRAPHIC CONSULTANTS LTD. (GB) Science altimeter, oceans SCOOP (SAR Altimetry Coastal & Open Ocean Performance) is a project funded under the ESA SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) Programme Element, started in September 2015, to characterise the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SRAL SAR mode altimeter products, in the coastal zone and open ocean, and then to develop and evaluate enhancements to the baseline processing scheme in terms of improvements to ocean measurements. Another objective is to develop and evaluate an improved Wet Troposphere correction for Sentinel-3, based on the measurements from the on-board MWR, further enhanced mostly in the coastal and polar regions using third party data, and provide recommendations for use.
Sargassum monitoring service The project objective is to develop and implement an innovative automated service based on Earth Observation (EO) data to monitor floating Sargassum algae in the Caribbean area, estimate their drift and eventual landings on the coasts, and [...] CLS COLLECTE LOCALISATION SATELLITES (FR) Applications applications, coastal zone, oceans, permanently open call The project objective is to develop and implement an innovative automated service based on Earth Observation (EO) data to monitor floating Sargassum algae in the Caribbean area, estimate their drift and eventual landings on the coasts, and provide dedicated bulletins to the end-users.
Satellite Oceanographic Datasets for Acidification (OceanSODA) Since the beginning of the industrial revolution humans have released approximately 500 billion metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels, cement production and land-use changes. About 30% of this carbon dioxide (CO2) [...] UNIVERSITY OF EXETER (GB) Science carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, climate change, ocean science cluster, oceans, science, SMOS, SST Since the beginning of the industrial revolution humans have released approximately 500 billion metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels, cement production and land-use changes. About 30% of this carbon dioxide (CO2) has been taken up by the oceans, largely by the dissolution of this CO2 into seawater and subsequent reactions with the dissolved carbonate ions present in seawater. Anthropogenic emissions CO2 levelled out in 2016, but have since begun to increase again, rendering absolutely critical to monitor ocean carbon uptake. The long-term uptake of carbon dioxide by the oceans is reducing the ocean pH, a process commonly known as ocean acidification. The uptake is also altering the ocean chemistry and ecology, impacting marine ecosystems on which we rely. Recent work has begun to investigate the use of satellite Earth Observation, especially focusing on satellite sea surface salinity and sea surface temperature data, exploiting empirical methods to monitor surface-ocean carbonate chemistry. These techniques complement in situ approaches by enabling the first synoptic-scale observation-based assessments of the global oceans and are particularly well suited to monitoring large episodic events. The Satellite Oceanographic Datasets for Acidification (OceanSODA) project will further develop the use of satellite Earth Observation for studying and monitoring marine carbonate chemistry. Besides further developments of algorithms linking satellite variables with marine carbonate system parameters and the associated validation, a distinct focus will be on selected scientific studies and downstream impact assessment. This will include characterising and analysing how upwelling (of low pH waters) and compound events impact the carbonate system, and characterising the flow and impact on marine ecosystems of low pH waters from large river systems. The project will also work closely with the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and The Ocean Foundation, to support their work on coral reef conservation, the designation of marine protected areas and investigation of wild fisheries health and sustainable management.
Sentinel-1 for Science Ocean The project aims to develop synergetic wind- wave- and radial surface current retrieval from S-1 SAR data (all modes)
The objective of this study is to develop improved L2 ocean product prototypes for Sentinel-1 mission fulfilling the [...]
CLS COLLECTE LOCALISATION SATELLITES (FR) Science oceans, SAR The project aims to develop synergetic wind- wave- and radial surface current retrieval from S-1 SAR data (all modes) The objective of this study is to develop improved L2 ocean product prototypes for Sentinel-1 mission fulfilling the requirements of the wide ocean user community. Those prototype products will aim at: Taking benefit of the new capabilities of the S-1 mission acquisition modes in order to improve the surface ocean sea state measurements (wind, waves, swell, currents), Implementing a synergetic ocean sea state measurement strategy in order to overcome the limitation of classical measurement approaches Providing ocean sea state measurements required by the user community (both operational community and scientific community)
SENTINEL-5P+ INNOVATION OCEAN COLOUR (S5P+-I-OC) The S5P+I-OC project will explore the capacity of the Sentinel-5p TROPOMI data to provide novel Ocean Colour (OC) products. More specifically, the objectives of this S5P+ Innovation activity are to:

develop a solid scientific basis for the [...]
ALFRED WEGENER INSTITUTE (DE) Science carbon cycle, carbon science cluster, ocean science cluster, oceans, science, Sentinel-3, Sentinel-5P, TROPOMI The S5P+I-OC project will explore the capacity of the Sentinel-5p TROPOMI data to provide novel Ocean Colour (OC) products. More specifically, the objectives of this S5P+ Innovation activity are to: develop a solid scientific basis for the application of S5P data within the context of novel scientific and operational OC products applications; assess existing algorithms which have been used for OC product retrievals from SCanning Imaging Absorption Spectro-Meter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2); develop novel OC products and retrieval methods that exploit the potential of the S5P mission’s capabilities beyond its primary objectives, in particular, the chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL) of important phytoplankton groups (PFT-CHL), the underwater light attenuation coefficients (Kd) for the ultraviolet (UV) and the blue spectral region separately (KdUV, KdBlue), and the sun-induced marine chlorophyll-a fluorescence signal (SIF-marine) from TROPOMI S5P level-1 data; explore the potential of the UV range of S5P for ocean biology; use complementary products from Sentinel-3 (S3) and S5P for exploring the UV measurements of TROPOMI for assessing sources of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and the amount of UV-absorbing pigments in the ocean; validate with established reference in situ datasets and perform intercomparison to other satellite OC data; define strategic actions for fostering a transition of the methods from research to operational activities; maximize the scientific return and benefits from the S5P mission for surface ocean research and services (e.g. CMEMS) by assessing the synergies with other satellite sensors, in particular explore the synergistic use of S5P and S3.
SMOS+ Med: Sea Surface Salinity in the Mediterranean Ocean salinity reflects precipitation and evaporation rates, river runoff and ice formation and melting. It is an essential variable for the Earth's climate, because it influences ocean circulation, convection and mixing, through its effect on [...] UNIVERSITY OF LIEGE (BE) Science oceans, science Ocean salinity reflects precipitation and evaporation rates, river runoff and ice formation and melting. It is an essential variable for the Earth’s climate, because it influences ocean circulation, convection and mixing, through its effect on water density, playing an important role in the global heat exchange between ocean and atmosphere (Lagerloef and Font, 2010), a mechanism that regulates the climate. Through its role in ocean circulation, salinity also impacts primary productivity, making nutrients accessible or not to the food web, having an influence in e.g. fisheries. Salinity also influences, through the thermohaline circulation, the rate of atmospheric CO 2 uptake.This project aims at calculating a sea surface salinity (SSS) field over the north Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea for the past 6 years, using a combination of techniques developed by the partners of the project, GEHR (Belgium) and BEC (Spain). This approach combined a debiased non-Bayesian retrieval of the SSS, the use of DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions) to correct for systematic errors, and multifractal fusion to obtain a L4 dataset.The resulting dataset has been compared to in situ data, demonstrating that the new methodology reduces by half the error with respect to previous estimates of SSS in the Mediterranean Sea. The dataset is available for download at http://bec.icm.csic.es/thredds/BECEXPMED.html
SMOWS: Satellite Mode Waters Salinity, in synergy with Temperature and Sea Level Living Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Audrey Hasson.

Mode waters (MWs) transport a large volume of heat, carbon and other properties across basins at seasonal to longer time-scales and thus play a major role in the [...]
CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE (CNRS) (FR) Science living planet fellows, ocean science cluster, oceans, science Living Planet Fellowship research project carried out by Audrey Hasson. Mode waters (MWs) transport a large volume of heat, carbon and other properties across basins at seasonal to longer time-scales and thus play a major role in the modulation of the Earth climate. In the context of anthropogenic global warming, unlocking the understanding of the MWs transport and characteristics is critical. MWs in the South Pacific Ocean are of particular interest because of their likely interaction with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Variations in the MWs, their relation with the observed long-term changes and possible implication for ENSO remain unknown. This proposal offers to investigate the MWs characteristics in surface salinity (SSS), temperature (SST) and sea level (SL), which are all Essential Climate Variables (ECV) emphasized by three European Climate Change Initiatives (CCIs). Their link with interannual to longer time scale variability of the Pacific Ocean also need further examination. MWs are subducted from the subtropical and sub-Antarctic Pacific mixed layers and subsequently flow equatorward at the subsurface or intermediate depth. They export the characteristics acquired at the surface into the subtropical gyre and the equatorial region. Surface observations can in consequence give us insight of the future characteristics found at depth at lower latitudes. According to IPCC (2013), it is likely that both the subduction of SSS anomalies and the movement of density surfaces due to warming have contributed to the observed changes in subsurface salinity. We will investigate properties of the formation areas and associated variations that will drive the volume and characteristics of the MWs. As MWs shoal, they modify the equatorial mixed layer characteristics, and could affect ENSO events. Studies indeed have shown that western equatorial Pacific SST and SSS modulate ENSO through vertical stratification. We will therefore to characterize the mean MWs pathways, properties and associated variations. In conclusion, the South Pacific Ocean is at the forefront of interannual variability to long-term modifications associated with climate change. It is therefore essential to study the observed SSS changes as they impact ENSO and SL variations. Satellite observations associated with in situ and modelling would ultimately enable us to unlock our understanding of the role of MWs SSS signature on interannual to longer timescale variability of the South Pacific Ocean.